Background—The creep-fatigue properties of stainless steel 316 are of interest because of the wide use of this material in demanding service environments, such as the nuclear industry. Need—A number of models exist to describe creep-fatigue behaviours, but they are limited by the need to obtain specialized coefficients from a large number of experiments, which are time-consuming and expensive. Also, they do not generalise to other situations of temperature and frequency. There is a need for improved formulations for creep-fatigue, with coefficients that determinable directly from the existing and simple creep-fatigue tests and creep rupture tests. Outcomes—A unified creep-fatigue equation is proposed, based on an extension of the Coffin-Manson equation, to introduce dependencies on temperature and frequency. The equation may be formulated for strain as
, or as a power-law
. These were then validated against existing experimental data. The equations provide an excellent fit to data (r2
= 0.97 or better). Originality—This work develops a novel formulation for creep-fatigue that accommodates temperature and frequency. The coefficients can be obtained with minimum experimental effort, being based on standard rather than specialized tests.
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