Next Article in Journal
Effect of Creep Aging Process on Microstructures and Properties of the Retrogressed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy
Next Article in Special Issue
Devising Strain Hardening Models Using Kocks–Mecking Plots—A Comparison of Model Development for Titanium Aluminides and Case Hardening Steel
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Chill Cast Co-Cr Alloys for Biomedical Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser
Open AccessArticle

Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures

Division of Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
Department of Minerals Technology, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Box 87-Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58030, Morelia, México
Centre of Excellence in Steel Technology (CoEST), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, 400076 Mumbai, India
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana Sofia Ramos
Metals 2016, 6(8), 190;
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallics 2016)
Near-net shape forming of metallic components from metallic powders produced in situ from reduction of corresponding pure metal oxides has not been explored to a large extent. Such a process can be probably termed in short as the “Reduction-Sintering” process. This methodology can be especially effective in producing components containing refractory metals. Additionally, in situ production of metallic powder from complex oxides containing more than one metallic element may result in in situ alloying during reduction, possibly at lower temperatures. With this motivation, in situ reduction of complex oxides mixtures containing more than one metallic element has been investigated intensively over a period of years in the department of materials science, KTH, Sweden. This review highlights the most important features of that investigation. The investigation includes not only synthesis of intermetallics and refractory metals using the gas solid reaction route but also study the reaction kinetics and mechanism. Environmentally friendly gases like H2, CH4 and N2 were used for simultaneous reduction, carburization and nitridation, respectively. Different techniques have been utilized. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to accurately control the process conditions and obtain reaction kinetics. The fluidized bed technique has been utilized to study the possibility of bulk production of intermetallics compared to milligrams in TGA. Carburization and nitridation of nascent formed intermetallics were successfully carried out. A novel method based on material thermal property was explored to track the reaction progress and estimate the reaction kinetics. This method implies the dynamic measure of thermal diffusivity using laser flash method. These efforts end up with a successful preparation of nanograined intermetallics like Fe-Mo and Ni-W. In addition, it ends up with simultaneous reduction and synthesis of Ni-WN and Ni-WC from their oxide mixtures in single step. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas-solid reactions; fluidization reaction; nanosized structures gas-solid reactions; fluidization reaction; nanosized structures
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, H.; Morales-Estrella, R.; Viswanathan, N.; Seetharaman, S. Gas-Solid Reaction Route toward the Production of Intermetallics from Their Corresponding Oxide Mixtures. Metals 2016, 6, 190.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop