Flexible Ion Adsorption Electrodes Using Natural Zeolite and Rice Husk Charcoal for FEM-EK Treatment
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Fabrication of the Electrode
- 2.0 g of starch glue, zeolite, and abaca were added to 150 mL of warm water and stirred at about 1000 rpm using a stirrer (SMT-102, AS ONE, Osaka, Japan).
- Kuntan is added and the mixture is stirred at 500 rpm using the stirrer.
- Water is aspirated using a suction-type electrode fabrication device to dehydrate and mold the mixture (Figure 2).
- The dehydrated electrodes are placed in a constant temperature dryer and dried at 75 °C for 12 h.
- The dried electrode is softened by soaking it in about 10 mL of water and placed in a press frame.
- Pressing is performed at an arbitrary pressure and time using a heat press machine (H300-01K, manufactured by AS ONE, Osaka, Japan).
- Again, the pressed electrodes are placed in the constant temperature dryer and dried at 75 °C for 12 h.
2.2. Flexibility Evaluation
2.3. Evaluation of Conductivity
2.4. Evaluation of Cs Adsorption
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Fabrication of Electrodes
3.3. Evaluation of Conductivity
3.4. Cs Adsorption
- Although zeolite is a good adsorbent, due to its dielectric properties and brittle nature, it is not easy to use in EK treatment as a material for fabricating electrodes, but we have used zeolite with other conductive material (kuntan, burnt rice husk charcoal) and prepared cathode electrodes which can be fully flexible and conductive and Cs adsorbent. Thus, this electrode can be used in FEM-EK treatment in order to purify polluted soil.
- Zeolite works as an adsorbent of Cs but adding zeolite to the electrodes showed a decline in conductivity and flexibility. The FEM-EK treatment is proposed for the treatment of a vast polluted area in conditions where the cathode electrodes will be exposed to the natural conditions of rain, moisture, etc. Considering this point, we evaluated the conductivity and flexibility of the fabricated electrodes by dripping with water and found an improvement in these characteristics, even after the addition of zeolite.
- Considering our results from this work, it is suggested that the appropriate zeolite mass ratio is ~15 wt.% of an electrode, or even less than that amount might be helpful for adsorbing Cs.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Kumagai, A.; Kabir, M.; Okuda, S.; Komachi, H.; Obara, N.; Sato, Y.; Saito, T.; Sato, M.; Tomioka, M.; Kumagai, S.; et al. Flexible Ion Adsorption Electrodes Using Natural Zeolite and Rice Husk Charcoal for FEM-EK Treatment. Metals 2023, 13, 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020320
Kumagai A, Kabir M, Okuda S, Komachi H, Obara N, Sato Y, Saito T, Sato M, Tomioka M, Kumagai S, et al. Flexible Ion Adsorption Electrodes Using Natural Zeolite and Rice Husk Charcoal for FEM-EK Treatment. Metals. 2023; 13(2):320. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020320Chicago/Turabian Style
Kumagai, Ayaka, Mahmudul Kabir, Shogo Okuda, Hitori Komachi, Naoko Obara, Yusuke Sato, Takahiro Saito, Michio Sato, Masahiro Tomioka, Seiji Kumagai, and et al. 2023. "Flexible Ion Adsorption Electrodes Using Natural Zeolite and Rice Husk Charcoal for FEM-EK Treatment" Metals 13, no. 2: 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13020320