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Metal Machining—Recent Advances, Applications, and Challenges

A Review of CO2 Coolants for Sustainable Machining

by 1,2,*, 1,3,* and 2,*
Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC), University of Sheffield, Catcliffe Way, Rotherham S60 5TZ, UK
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
Industrial Engineering and Management Department, International Hellenic University, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco J. G. Silva
Metals 2022, 12(2), 283;
Received: 22 December 2021 / Revised: 19 January 2022 / Accepted: 25 January 2022 / Published: 5 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machining: State-of-the-Art 2021)
In many machining operations, metalworking fluids (MWFs) play an invaluable role. Often, proper application of an intelligent MWF strategy allows manufacturing processes to benefit from a multitude of operational incentives, not least of which are increased tool life, improved surface integrity and optimised chip handling. Despite these clearly positive implications, current MWF strategies are often unable to accommodate the environmental, economic and social conscience of industrial environments. In response to these challenges, CO2 coolants are postulated as an operationally viable, environmentally benign MWF solution. Given the strong mechanistic rationale and historical evidence in support of cryogenic coolants, this review considers the technological chronology of cryogenic MWF’s in addition to the current state-of-the-art approaches. The review also focuses on the use of CO2 coolants in the context of the machining of a multitude of material types in various machining conditions. In doing so, cryogenic assisted machining is shown to offer a litany of performance benefits for both conventional emulsion (flood) cooling and near dry strategies, i.e., minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), as well as aerosol dry lubrication (ADL). View Full-Text
Keywords: cryogenic machining; coolant; metalworking fluids; carbon dioxide; liquid nitrogen; minimum quantity lubrication; tool wear cryogenic machining; coolant; metalworking fluids; carbon dioxide; liquid nitrogen; minimum quantity lubrication; tool wear
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MDPI and ACS Style

Proud, L.; Tapoglou, N.; Slatter, T. A Review of CO2 Coolants for Sustainable Machining. Metals 2022, 12, 283.

AMA Style

Proud L, Tapoglou N, Slatter T. A Review of CO2 Coolants for Sustainable Machining. Metals. 2022; 12(2):283.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Proud, Leon, Nikolaos Tapoglou, and Tom Slatter. 2022. "A Review of CO2 Coolants for Sustainable Machining" Metals 12, no. 2: 283.

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