Effect of Heat Treatment on the Resulting Dimensional Characteristics of the C45 Carbon Steel after Turning
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Microstructure of the Analyzed Samples
3.2. Vickers Hardness Test
3.3. Roughness, Cylindricality, and Diameter Size Changes
- The soft annealed steel consisted of a soft ferrite matrix. The results obtained show that the diameter change achieved a negative value (−0.03 mm), but the cylindricality was relatively high, ~0.018 mm compared to other samples (beside hardened sample). The built-up edge formation can be explained by the roughness parameter Ra, which was higher compared to other steel states (besides quenched and tempered states). Similarly, a negative value of the diameter size change was observed in the sample in the normalized state, which had the smallest cylindricality value.
- The highest hardness was found for the steel after the hardening process (694 HV 10). The high hardness was related to the presence of martensite and retained austenite. This type of microstructure caused a damage to the cutting edge of the cut insert used and led to a significant change in geometrical accuracy. The cylindricity change achieved 0.12 ÷ 0.18 mm compared to the theoretical value of the diameter of the machined steel bar. An inaccuracy was also observed in diameter dimension, on lower length ~0.18 mm and on the second machined surface (machined 40 mm length) a ~0.53 mm difference between the theoretical value of the machined diameter 25 mm was found. The inaccuracies were caused by the wear of the cutting edge of the tool used in cutting parameters setting.
- Quenched and tempered states had similar values of the Ra parameter and cylindricality. The Rz parameter for sample QT 530 °C was slightly lower than for QT 660 °C.
- The measured roughness parameters are influenced by local cutting conditions and the geometry of the tool used. For the correct cutting parameters evaluation, the initial state of the C45 steel need to be known.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Min. (wt.%)||Max. (wt.%)|
|C||0.42||0.50||0.487 ± 0.005|
|Cr||-||0.40||0.074 ± 0.001|
|Mn||0.50||0.80||0.718 ± 0.005|
|Ni||-||0.40||0.052 ± 0.003|
|P||-||0.045||0.0098 ± 0.0002|
|S||-||0.045||0.011 ± 0.001|
|Si||-||0.40||0.158 ± 0.008|
|Mo||-||0.10||0.017 ± 0.001|
|Cr + Mo + Ni||-||0.63||0.143|
|Steel Number||Heat Treatment Type|
|1||Soft annealing at 700 °C/1 h holding time, slow cooling in N2 for 10 h|
|2||Normalizing at 850 °C/1 h holding time, cooling in air|
|3||Hardening at 830 °C/1 h holding time, cooling in water|
|4||Quenching and tempering followed by hardening at 830 °C/1 h holding time, cooling in water; tempering 530 °C/1 h holding time and cooling in air|
|5||Quenching and tempering followed by hardening at 830 °C/1 h holding time, cooling in water; tempering 660 °C/1 h holding time and cooling into air|
|Cutting speed vc [m·min−1]||180 ÷ 300|
|Cutting depth ap [mm]||1 ÷ 5|
|Feed f [mm]||0.1 ÷ 0.5|
|Operation||Description||Cutting Depth |
|Cutting Speed |
|1||Facing 1 mm||1||-||-|
|2||Turning Ø30–30 mm||1.5||0.2||180|
|3||Turning Ø27–30 mm||1||0.2||180|
|4||Edge machining||0.5 × 80°||-||-|
|5||Rotating the part|
|6||Facing 1 mm||1||-||-|
|7||Turning Ø30–40 mm||1.5||0.2||180|
|8||Turning Ø27–40 mm||1||0.2||180|
|9||Edge machining||0.5 × 80°||-||-|
|Sample Heat Treatment||Average Value and Standard Deviation|
|Soft annealed||207 ± 2 HV 10|
|Normalized||273 ± 1 HV 10|
|Hardened||694 ± 9 HV 10|
|Quenched and tempered at 530 °C||392 ± 8 HV 10|
|Quenched and tempered at 660 °C||276 ± 3 HV 10|
|Machined Surface on Length |
|Machined Surface on Length |
|Heat Treatment||Ra [µm]||Rq [µm]||Rz [µm]||Rt [µm]||Ra [µm]||Rq [µm]||Rz [µm]||Rt [µm]|
|QT 530 °C||2.2973||2.5475||8.1361||8.5743||2.3087||2.5678||8.1069||8.5090|
|QT 660 °C||1.5912||1.9758||8.7929||11.1379||2.2992||2.5853||9.3118||12.1524|
|Cylindricity on Machined Length|
|Difference in Diameter Size on Machined Length|
|30 mm||40 mm||30 mm||40 mm|
|QT 530 °C||0.01252||0.01440||0.03549||0.02684|
|QT 660 °C||0.01216||0.01944||0.00218||0.01532|
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Moravčíková, J.; Moravčík, R.; Palcut, M. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Resulting Dimensional Characteristics of the C45 Carbon Steel after Turning. Metals 2022, 12, 1899. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111899
Moravčíková J, Moravčík R, Palcut M. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Resulting Dimensional Characteristics of the C45 Carbon Steel after Turning. Metals. 2022; 12(11):1899. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111899Chicago/Turabian Style
Moravčíková, Jana, Roman Moravčík, and Marián Palcut. 2022. "Effect of Heat Treatment on the Resulting Dimensional Characteristics of the C45 Carbon Steel after Turning" Metals 12, no. 11: 1899. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111899