Conventional orthogonal machining is an effective severe plastic deformation (SPD) method to fabricate ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials. However, UFG materials produced by room temperature-free machining (RT-FM) are prone to dynamic recovery, which decreases the mechanical properties of UFG materials. In this study, the cryogenic orthogonal machining technique was implemented to fabricate chips that have an abundant UFG microstructure. Solution-treated Al-7075 bulk has been processed in cryogenic temperature (CT) and room temperature (RT) with various machining parameters, respectively. The microstructure, chip morphology and mechanical properties of CT and RT samples have been investigated. CT samples can reach a microhardness of 167.46 Hv, and the hardness of CT samples is higher than that of the corresponding RT samples among all parameters, with an average difference of 5.62 Hv. Piecemeal chip obtained under RT has cracks on its free surface, and elevated temperature aggravates crack growth, whereas all CT samples possess smoother surfaces and continuous shape. CT suppresses dynamic recovery effectively to form a heavier deformation microstructure, and with a higher dislocation density in CT samples, they further improve the chips’ hardness. Also, CT inhibits the formation of solute cluster and precipitation to enhance the formability of material, so that continuous chips are formed.
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