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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Physiological and Biomechanical Evaluation of a Training Macrocycle in Children Swimmers

Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Faculty of Sport Science, University of Murcia, 30720 San Javier, Spain
School of P.E. & Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17237 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(3), 57;
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses During Exercise)
Physiological responses related to 400-m front crawl performance were examined in a 11-week training macrocycle in children 11.6 ± 1.2 years old. Fourteen girls and twenty-nine boys completed a maximum intensity 400-m test, at the beginning (Τ1) and at the end of four weeks of general preparation (Τ2), four weeks of specific preparation (Τ3), and three weeks of the competitive period (Τ4). Blood lactate (La), blood glucose (Glu) and heart rate were measured post effort. Stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) were measured during the test. The 400-m time was decreased at T2, T3, and T4 compared to T1 by 4.2 ± 4.9, 7.5 ± 7.0, and 8.6 ± 7.3% (p < 0.05) and at T3 and T4 compared to T2 by 3.1 ± 4.3 and 4.2 ± 4.6%, respectively (p < 0.05). La was not different between tests (p > 0.05) and Glu was decreased at T3 compared to other testing moments (p < 0.05). SR, SL, and SI were higher at T3 and T4 compared to T1 (p < 0.05). SL and SI were also increased at T4 compared to T2 (p < 0.05). Performance changes from T1 to T2 were related to SL and SI changes (r = 0.45 and 0.83, p < 0.05), and subsequent changes between T2 to T3 were related to SR, SI, La, and Glu changes (r = 0.48, 0.68, 0.34, and 0.42, p < 0.05). Performance change from T3 to T4 was related to SL, SI, and La modifications (r = 0.34, 0.70, and 0.53, p < 0.05). Performance gains may be related to various biomechanical or physiological changes according to training macrocycle structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: performance; lactate; stroke rate; stroke length; stroke index; macrocycle performance; lactate; stroke rate; stroke length; stroke index; macrocycle
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Ferreira, S.; Carvalho, D.; Monteiro, A.S.; Abraldes, J.A.A.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.; Toubekis, A.; Fernandes, R. Physiological and Biomechanical Evaluation of a Training Macrocycle in Children Swimmers. Sports 2019, 7, 57.

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