Sleep Data, Physical Performance, and Injuries in Preparation for Professional Mixed Martial Arts
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Protocol Physical Performance Measures
- Vertical Jump—The athletes performed the vertical jump using a commercial vertec device (Sports Imports, Columbus, OH, USA). After using the stack of adjustable horizontal vanes to determine the flat-footed standing reach, the stack of vanes was raised to an estimated height so that the athletes were capable of reaching the lowest set of vanes but incapable of reaching the highest vane. After the athletes generated power and jumped as high as possible vertically, the difference between standing reach and vertical reach was computed. The highest vertical difference trial was utilized as the vertical jump measurement [22,23,24].
- Prowler Push—The athletes performed the prowler push assessment using a prowler sled loaded at a competition weight. All athletes remained within 5% of competition weight during testing. The sled was pushed for 15 meters as fast as possible with maximal effort. Push sled times were recorded for total distance .
- Modified Bruce Protocol (VO2max)—The athletes performed a progressive, maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion, using the Modified Bruce Protocol. This consists of increasing treadmill speed and incline. The test was terminated when the athlete could no longer continue. The maximal heart rate was recorded as the highest heart rate achieved during the test [26,27,28,29,30,31,32].
- Heart Rate Recovery [(HRR) following VO2max testing - one minute done in %]—Heart rate was measured throughout VO2max testing and for 1 minute during recovery following test completion .
- Pull Ups—The athletes performed the pull-ups until reaching a failure test using a horizontal bar with a prone-grip. The athletes pulled up with a straightened-body, high enough for the chin to be above the bar. The test terminated once the athlete was not able to clear the bar, started waving legs, or when the athlete hung longer than two seconds without being able to clear the chin above the bar. This motion was repeated, without rest, as many times as possible. Maximum repetitions were recorded [33,34,35].
- Injuries—The total number of injuries endured over the six-week training period were recorded.
- Missed Sessions—The total number of missed practices, competitions, and testing sessions due to injury were recorded.
2.3. Protocol Sleep Measures
- Sleep Latency—The time it takes an individual to fall asleep.
- Sleep Efficiency—Indicates how much time in bed is spent sleeping.
- Onset and Wake Variances—Measures how consistent the athlete’s onset and wake times are.
2.4. Statistical Analysis
Conflicts of Interest
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|MMA Athlete (n = 7)||Age (years)||Body Height (cm)||Body Weight (kg)|
|27.2 ± 3.4||180.7 ± 4.4||77.3 ± 0.3|
|Vertical Jump||Prowler Push||VO2max||HRR||Pull Ups||Injuries||Missed Sessions|
|Total Sleep Time|
|r||−0.787 *||0.776 *||−0.860 **||−0.739 *||−0.370||−0.457||−0.789 *|
|r||0.593||−0.640||0.472||0.710 *||0.219||0.682||0.788 *|
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Peacock, C.A.; Mena, M.; Sanders, G.J.; Silver, T.A.; Kalman, D.; Antonio, J. Sleep Data, Physical Performance, and Injuries in Preparation for Professional Mixed Martial Arts. Sports 2019, 7, 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010001
Peacock CA, Mena M, Sanders GJ, Silver TA, Kalman D, Antonio J. Sleep Data, Physical Performance, and Injuries in Preparation for Professional Mixed Martial Arts. Sports. 2019; 7(1):1. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010001Chicago/Turabian Style
Peacock, Corey A., Mauricio Mena, Gabriel J. Sanders, Tobin A. Silver, Douglas Kalman, and Jose Antonio. 2019. "Sleep Data, Physical Performance, and Injuries in Preparation for Professional Mixed Martial Arts" Sports 7, no. 1: 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010001