Analysis of the Coverage of Paratriathlon and Paratriathletes in Canadian Newspapers
1.1. The Legacy of the Paralympics
1.2. Legacy of the Paralympics and the Media
1.3. The Role of Athletes
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Data Sources and Data Collection
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Descriptive Quantitative Results
3.2. Qualitative Data
3.2.1. Articles without Further Content
3.2.2. Major Themes
Major Theme 1: Personal Story
Major Theme 2: Inspire
“We’re more about being out there and visible, giving people something to think about,” Cowie said, adding that words like, “inspiring, awesome” and “you guys rock” often come up in the conversation. “It’s humbling and overwhelming that people would stop and tell you what a difference you are making. You don’t expect it,” he said. However, on a deeper level, Cowie and Jones understood how their actions inspire and influence those around them. “It’s beginning to make a difference,” Cowie said, adding the reason the two strive to give back goes to the core of what is fundamentally good in life. “It’s like that hug you got when you were a little kid, and how it made you feel better,” he said. “It’s corny, but it’s really what the bottom line is. We do inspire people, we do motivate people, and if we do this two or three times, it gets people to think what they’ve done is a success.” Getting an email from a someone in reply to how he had helped him through a rough time is the motivation that keeps him going, Cowie said”.
Major Theme 3: Supercrip
“Mom, I’m a paraplegic.” Those were the first words Julian Nahachewsky uttered to his mother when she entered the hospital room after his accident. Before resting her head on his chest to pray, she calmly said: “Son, well, all the deep resources that you have within you—like strength and courage—that have been latent inside you, they are going to have to come alive now.”
Major Theme 4: Motivation
Major Theme 5: Ability
Major Theme 6
3.2.3. Minor Themes
Minor Theme 1: About the Canadian Paralympic Committee
“The Canadian Paralympic Committee is a non-profit, private organization with 46 member sports organizations dedicated to strengthening the Paralympic Movement. The Canadian Paralympic Committee’s vision is to be the world’s leading Paralympic nation. Its mission is to lead the development of a sustainable Paralympic sport system in Canada to enable athletes to reach the podium at the Paralympic Games. By supporting Canadian Paralympic athletes and promoting their success, the Canadian Paralympic Committee inspires all Canadians with a disability to get involved in sport through programs delivered by its member organizations. For more information, visit www.paralympic.ca”.
Minor Theme 2: Access Issues
Minor Theme 3: Trickle-Down Issue
4.1. Legacy Goal 1 and 2
4.1.1. Legacy Goal 1
4.1.2. Legacy Goal 2
4.2. Legacy Goals 3 and 4
4.3. What to Do?
4.3.1. Role of Canadian Paratriathlon and Triathlon Organization
4.3.2. Role of Athletes
A “sporting hero” is a person whom one admires. The hero is defined by a visible personification of certain traits. For example, they may be interpreted by the observer (and/or portrayed by the media) to demonstrate perseverance, to be self-effacing and modest, with social responsibility. The hero may have succeeded “against the odds”. Most of the time, the hero will display mastery in her/his sport, but can achieve at a range of local and national levels.
“As an athlete and sports administrator, Elisabeth Walker-Young is thrilled by the increase in participation at the Paralympics and the awareness the Games generate for people with a disability. What still frustrates her is how this growth at the elite level has not “trickled down” into more people with disabilities becoming active. Statistics Canada estimates only three per cent of people who say they have a physical disability consider themselves physically active. Some disabled people may feel uncomfortable at a gym or pool because of the looks they receive”.
Conflicts of Interest
- Wolbring, G. Sport and physical education after the cheetah legs. Bull. Int. Counc. Sport Sci. Phys. Educ. 2011, 61, 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations. Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. 2015. Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Forber-Pratt, A.J. Multiple oppression and tackling stigma through sport. In The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies; Springer: London, UK, 2018; pp. 35–53. [Google Scholar]
- European Parliament. European Parliament Resolution on the Situation of People with Disabilities in the Enlarged European Union: The European Action Plan 2006–2007. Available online: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2006-0527+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Karageorgos, A.F.; Higgs, C. The paralympic movement and the international development agenda. In The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies; Springer: London, UK, 2018; pp. 273–294. [Google Scholar]
- Lyras, A.; Peachey, J.W. Integrating sport–for–development theory and praxis. Sport Manag. Rev. 2011, 14, 311–326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Available online: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Fitzgerald, H. Disability and barriers to inclusion. In The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies; Springer: London, UK, 2018; pp. 55–70. [Google Scholar]
- Mahtani, K.R.; Protheroe, J.; Slight, S.P.; Demarzo, M.M.P.; Blakeman, T.; Barton, C.A.; Brijnath, B.; Roberts, N. Can the London 2012 Olympics ‘inspire a generation’to do more physical or sporting activities? An overview of systematic reviews. BMJ Open 2013, 3, e002058. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Morris, J. Former Swimmer Hopes to Bring Athlete’s View to Job as Paralympic Assistant Chef; Former Paralympic Swimmer Named as Assistant Chef; Canadian Press: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Wolbring, G.; Litke, B. Superhip to Supercrip: The ‘Trickle–Down’ Effect of the Paralympics. 2012. Available online: https://theconversation.com/superhip-to-supercrip-the-trickle-down-effect-of-the-paralympics-9009 (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Tynedal, J.; Wolbring, G. Paralympics and its athletes through the lens of the New York times. Sports 2013, 1, 13–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wolbring, G.; Tynedal, J. Pistorius and the media: Missed story angles. Sport Technol. 2013, 6, 177–183. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Misener, L.; Darcy, S.; Legg, D.; Gilbert, K. Beyond Olympic legacy: Understanding paralympic legacy through a thematic analysis. J. Sport Manag. 2013, 27, 329–341. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Paralympic Committee (IPC). About Us. Available online: https://www.paralympic.org/the-ipc/about-us (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Safai, P.; Johnson, J.; Bryans, J. The absence of resistance training? Exploring the politics of health in high performance youth triathlon. Sociol. Sport J. 2016, 33, 269–281. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Atkinson, M. Triathlon, suffering and exciting significance. Leisure Stud. 2008, 27, 165–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Misener, L. A media frames analysis of the legacy discourse for the 2010 winter paralympic games. Commun. Sport 2012, 1, 342–364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cashman, R.; Toohey, K.; Simon, D.; Symons, C.; Stewart, B. When the carnival is over: Evaluating the outcomes of mega sporting events in australia. Sport. Tradit. 2004, 21, 1–32. [Google Scholar]
- Weed, M.; Dowse, S. A missed opportunity waiting to happen? The social legacy potential of the London 2012 paralympic games. J. Policy Res. Tour. Leisure Events 2009, 1, 170–174. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ComRes. Scope Paralympics Survey. Available online: http://www.comresglobal.com/polls/scope-paralympics-survey/ (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Weiler, J. The Evolution of 2010 Legacies Now a Continuing Legacy of the 2010 Winter Games through Venture Philanthropy. Available online: http://www.liftpartners.ca/wp-content/uploads/IOC-case-study-2_2011_The-Evolution-of-2010-Legacies-Now_A-Continuing-Legacy-of-the-Games.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- UK Government. Inspired by 2012: The Legacy from the Olympic and Paralympic Games Third Annual Report—Summer 2015 a Joint UK Government and Mayor of London Report. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/452685/1662-B_Legacy_Report_2015_ACCESSIBLE.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Scope. Have the Paralympics Improved the Daily Lives of Disabled People? Available online: http://blog.scope.org.uk/2013/08/29/have-the-paralympics-improved-the-daily-lives-of-disabled-people/ (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Opinium. Survey Results Paralympic Legacy? Available online: https://www.opinium.co.uk/paralympic-legacy/ (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Scope. Current Attitudes towards Disabled People. Available online: http://www.scope.org.uk/Scope/media/Images/Publication%20Directory/Current-attitudes-towards-disabled-people.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Ahmed, N. Paralympics 2012 legacy: Accessible housing and disability equality or inequality? Disabil. Soc. 2013, 28, 129–133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Crow, L. Summer of 2012: Paralympic legacy and the welfare benefit scandal. 2015. Available online: http://www.roaring-girl.com/work/summer-of-2012-paralympics-legacy-and-the-welfare-benefit-scandal/ (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Bush, A.; Silk, M.; Porter, J.; Howe, P.D. Disability [sport] and discourse: Stories within the paralympic legacy. Reflect. Pract. 2013, 14, 632–647. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ogura, K. Visions on the legacy of the tokyo 2020 paralympic games. In The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies; Springer: London, UK, 2018; pp. 579–601. [Google Scholar]
- Packer, C.; Geh, D.; Goulden, O.; Jordan, A.; Withers, G.; Wagstaff, A.; Bellwood, R.; Binmore, C.; Webster, C. No lasting legacy: No change in reporting of women’s sports in the british print media with the London 2012 Olympics and paralympics. J. Publ. Health 2014, 37, 50–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Jackson, D.; Hodges, C.; Molesworth, M. Reframing Disability?: Media,(dis) Empowerment, and Voice in the 2012 Paralympics; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Crow, L. Scroungers and superhumans: Images of disability from the summer of 2012: A visual inquiry. J. Vis. Culture 2014, 13, 168–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Braye, S.; Dixon, K.; Gibbons, T. The 2012 paralympics and perceptions of disability in the uk. In The Impact of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: Diminishing Contrasts, Increasing Varieties; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2015; pp. 15–34. [Google Scholar]
- Pappous, A.; Brown, C. Paralympic legacies: A critical perspective. In The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies; Brittain, I., Beacom, A., Eds.; Springer: London, UK, 2018; pp. 647–664. [Google Scholar]
- Koss, J. Athletes’ rights and Olympic reform: A discussion with johann koss, ann peel and alexandra orlando. Sport Soc. 2011, 14, 309–318. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Agyemang, K.J.; Singer, J.N. Toward a framework for understanding black male athlete social responsibility (bmasr) in big–time American sports. Int. J. Sport Manag. Mark. 2011, 10, 46–60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Agyemang, K.J.A. Understanding Black Male Athlete Social Responsibility (BMASR): A Case Study of an NBA Franchise. Available online: http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2011-05-9172/AGYEMANG-DISSERTATION.pdf?sequence=2 (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Agyemang, K.J. Black male athlete activism and the link to michael jordan: A transformational leadership and social cognitive theory analysis. Int. Rev. Soc. Sport 2012, 47, 433–445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martins, P.; Rosado, A.; Ferreira, V.; Biscaia, R. Personal and social responsibility among athletes: The role of self–determination, achievement goals and engagement. J. Hum. Kinet. 2017, 57, 39–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Carter, E. Athlete social responsibility (ASR): A grounded theory inquiry into the social consciousness of elite athletes. Available online: https://viurrspace.ca/handle/10170/122 (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- LaVoi, N.M.; Clark Power, F. Pathways to fostering civic engagement in collegiate female athletes: An exploratory study. J. Coll. Charact. 2006, 7, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Forber-Pratt, A.J. Paralympic sport as a vehicle for social change in bermuda and ghana. J. Sport Dev. 2015, 3, 35–49. [Google Scholar]
- Supplitt, T. An Abled Nation: Disabled Athletes in Japan and How Their Bodies Are Governed. Available online: https://repository.arizona.edu/bitstream/handle/10150/624127/azu_etd_15330_sip1_m.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Misener, L.; McGillivray, D.; McPherson, G.; Legg, D. Leveraging parasport events for sustainable community participation: The glasgow 2014 commonwealth games. Ann. Leisure Res. 2015, 18, 450–469. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Beacom, A.; Golder, G. Developing disability sport: The evolving role of the university sector. In The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies; Springer: Plymouth, UK, 2018; pp. 625–646. [Google Scholar]
- Williams, A.S.; Kim, D.; Agyemang, K.; Martin, T.G. All brands are not created equal: Understanding the role of athletes in sport–brand architecture. J. Multidiscip. Res. 2015, 7, 75. [Google Scholar]
- Peachey, J.W.; Cunningham, G.B.; Lyras, A.; Cohen, A.; Bruening, J. The influence of a sport–for–peace event on prejudice and change agent self–efficacy. J. Sport Manag. 2015, 29, 229–244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Croock, S.; De Bosscher, V.; van Bottenburg, M. The Inspirational Function of Role Models for Sport Participation and Development. Available online: http://easm.net/download/2012/40f039976ea2cb2e271e241b0697237a.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Grix, J.; Carmichael, F. Why do governments invest in elite sport? A polemic. Int. J. Sport Pol. Polit. 2012, 4, 73–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Triathlon Union. about paratriathlon. Available online: https://www.triathlon.org/paratriathlon/about (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- International Triathlon Union. Paratriathlon Will Have Four Medal Events per Gender at the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games. Available online: https://www.triathlon.org/news/article/paratriathlon_will_have_four_medal_events_per_gender_at_the_tokyo_2020_para (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Kalla, V.S.; Ghanem, T. Exploring world’s Interest in Paralympics through Twitter. Available online: http://faculty.cs.uwlax.edu/~mics2017/proceedings/docs/MICS_2017_paper_23.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Bundon, A.; Hurd Clarke, L. Unless you go online you are on your own: Blogging as a bridge in para-sport. Disabil. Soc. 2015, 30, 185–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Triathlon Australia. Triathlon Australia Selection Policy. Available online: http://www.triathlon.org.au/Assets/Triathlon+Australia+Digital+Assets/Open+Para+2017.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Graham-Paulson, T.S.; Perret, C.; Smith, B.; Crosland, J.; Goosey–Tolfrey, V.L. Nutritional supplement habits of athletes with an impairment and their sources of information. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2015, 25, 387–395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Berry, N.T. The Effects of a 10 km Run and 30 km Cycling Time–Trial on Ventilatory Threshold during the Final Running Leg of an itu Duathlon in Highly–Trained Multi–Sport Athletes; ProQuest Dissertations Publishing: Chapel Hill, NC, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Arratibel–Imaz, I.; Calleja–González, J.; Emparanza, J.I.; Terrados, N.; Mjaanes, J.M.; Ostojic, S.M. Lack of concordance amongst measurements of individual anaerobic threshold and maximal lactate steady state on a cycle ergometer. Phys. Sportsmed. 2016, 44, 34–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mujika, I.; Orbañanos, J.; Salazar, H. Physiology and training of a world–champion paratriathlete. Int. J. Sport Physiol. Perform. 2015, 10, 927–930. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mujika, I. Quantification of training and competition loads in endurance sports: Methods and applications. Int. J. Sport Physiol. Perform. 2017, 12, 9–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Curran, S.A.; Lyle, D.K. Adaptive sports ankle prosthetics. Prosthet. Orthot. Int. 2012, 36, 370–375. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Arnold, R.; Wagstaff, C.R.; Steadman, L.; Pratt, Y. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability. J. Sport Sci. 2017, 35, 1187–1196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hammer, C.; Podlog, L.; Wadey, R.; Galli, N.; Forber–Pratt, A.J.; Newton, M.; Hall, M.; Greviskes, L. Understanding posttraumatic growth of paratriathletes with acquired disability. Disabil. Rehabil. 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Conroy, C. Paralympic cultures: Disability as paradigm. Contemp. Theatre Rev. 2013, 23, 519–531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Triathlon Union. Itu Paratriathlon Classification Rules and Regulations Manual. Available online: https://www.triathlon.org/uploads/docs/ITU_Paratriathlon_Classification_Rules_and_Regulations_2012.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Weedon, G. “I will. Protect this house”: Under armour, corporate nationalism and post–9/11 cultural politics. Sociol. Sport J. 2012, 29, 265–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Entman, R.M. Symposium framing us coverage of international news: Contrasts in narratives of the kal and iran air incidents. J. Commun. 1991, 41, 6–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Entman, R.M. Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. J. Commun. 1993, 43, 51–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Benford, R.D. An insider’s critique of the social movement framing perspective. Sociol. Inq. 1997, 67, 409–430. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Scheufele, D.A. Framing as a theory of media effects. J. Commun. 1999, 49, 103–122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Vreese, C.H. News framing: Theory and typology. Inf. Des. J. Doc. Des. 2005, 13, 51–62. [Google Scholar]
- Spiller, N. Me++: The cyborg self and the networked city. Archit. Rev. 2004, 215, 104. [Google Scholar]
- Collins, P.A.; Abelson, J.; Pyman, H.; Lavis, J.N. Are we expecting too much from print media? An analysis of newspaper coverage of the 2002 Canadian healthcare reform debate. Soc. Sci. Med. 2006, 63, 89–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Daly, K.J. Qualitative Methods for Family Studies and Human Development; Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2007; pp. 1–293. [Google Scholar]
- Mayring, P. Qualitative content analysis. Forum Qual. Soc. Res. 2000, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baxter, P.; Jack, S. Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. Qual. Rep. 2008, 13, 544–559. [Google Scholar]
- Lincoln, Y.S.; Guba, E.G. Naturalistic Inquiry; SAGE Publications: Beverly Hills, CA, USA, 1985. [Google Scholar]
- Shenton, A.K. Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Educ. Inf. 2004, 22, 63–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Brighton Independent. Ontario Parasport Games in Northumberland; The Brighton Independent: Brighton, UK, 29 May 2014; p. 1. [Google Scholar]
- Campbell, J. Ontario parasport games in northumberland. Campbellford EMC, 29 May 2014; A23. [Google Scholar]
- Berridge, T. Paratriathlon team looks to the future; paraproject hopes to encourage young athletes. The Record, 4 September 2013; 18. [Google Scholar]
- Hills, J. Positive thinking powers daniel’s drive for glory; Canadian training hard in preparation for world championship para–triathlon. Edmonton Journal, 28 July 2017; D5. [Google Scholar]
- Hills, J. Dynamic para–triathlon duo have an unbreakable bond. Edmonton Journal, 29 July 2017; E5. [Google Scholar]
- Anonymous. On the way to the worlds. Salmon Arm Observer, 7 September 2010; B2. [Google Scholar]
- MacKinnon, J. Speeding past life’s obstacles; A devastating injury helped launch scott patterson’s athletic career. The Province, 14 August 2011; A39. [Google Scholar]
- Irinici, A. Overcoming one of life’s greatest obstacles; julian nahachewsky. Star–Phoenix, 11 December 2013; N6. [Google Scholar]
- Juzenas, F. Hatelt claims another title. The Brampton Guardian, 11 October 2010; 1. [Google Scholar]
- Johnson, G. Triathlete’s amazing perseverance gives meaning to term ‘sports hero’; After a debilitating accident with a drunk driver left kim wedgerfield contemplating suicide, she found a purpose by dedicating her life to the gruelling sport of triathlon. Calgary Herald, 17 October 2010; F3. [Google Scholar]
- MacKinnon, J. Losing legs no deterrent; vancouver’s scott patterson has competed internationally as a sit–skier, triathlete, swimmer. Edmonton Journal, 13 August 2011; B1. [Google Scholar]
- Freeman, B. Former ndhs teacher earns triathlete honours. Campbellford EMC, 24 May 2012; 17. [Google Scholar]
- Morrison, C. Athlete faces her greatest challenge. Alberni Valley Times, 14 September 2012; B1. [Google Scholar]
- Paterson, T. Self–transcendence triathlon calls for para–athletes. Victoria News, 23 June 2013; 1. [Google Scholar]
- The Ottawa Citizen. Capital sports wrapup. The Ottawa Citizen, 18 September 2013; B2. [Google Scholar]
- Wyman, T. ‘I just felt really like I belonged’; Inspiration. The Province, 6 April 2016; A50. [Google Scholar]
- Barnes, D. Daniel aiming to follow golden example at Rio; Canadian triathlete hopes to match whitfield result when he competes. The Windsor Star, 9 September 2016; B2. [Google Scholar]
- Barnes, D. Triathlete daniel retracing whitfield’s golden footsteps. Leader Post, 9 September 2016; B3. [Google Scholar]
- Barnes, D. Daniel aims to follow golden example; Triathlon. The Province, 9 September 2016; A48. [Google Scholar]
- Prest, A. Broken parts, strong machine; west van amputee, blind man team up to race past old traumas. North Shore News, 1 June 2014; A3. [Google Scholar]
- Billeck, S. Training basket of chantal givens. Winnipeg Free Press, 30 May 2015; D16. [Google Scholar]
- Wyman, T. Pair’s courage helps build new friendship. Calgary Herald, 6 April 2016; D3. [Google Scholar]
- Campbell, T. She wouldn’t be denied. Winnipeg Free Press, 15 July 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Canada off to a strong start at the paralympic games in Rio. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Online Text, 8 September 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Barnes, D. Hoping for a whitfield moment; win in the sport’s paralympic debut would mirror first olympics triumph. Montreal Gazette, 9 September 2016; B2. [Google Scholar]
- Allen, K. Paralympic runners amaze fans with times surpassing olympians. Toronto Star, 14 September 2016; A1. [Google Scholar]
- Withers, C. Daniel looks to older brother for inspiration as he leads para–triathlon team to Rio. The Canadian Press, 12 July 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Berridge, T. Paraproject opens doors for athletes. Burnaby Now, 4 September 2013; 20. [Google Scholar]
- Cruickshank, S. Calgary triathlete enjoying a simply dominating season. Calgary Herald, 4 September 2015; D3. [Google Scholar]
- Somers Kevin. Steely determination. The Spectator, 16 March 2011; GO5. [Google Scholar]
- Cleary, M. Brooman and the boys thrilled to be back racing on the water. The Ottawa Citizen, 10 September 2015; B8. [Google Scholar]
- Mingo, R.; Livingstone, B. 20 compelling calgarians; the herald celebrates inspiring calgarians worth keeping an eye on in the coming year and beyond. Calgary Herald, 2 January 2016; A9. [Google Scholar]
- Anonymous. The Canadian paralympic committee welcomes para–canoe and para–triathlon onto the Rio 2016 paralympic summer games programme. Canada NewsWire, 14 December 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Ireland, J. Paratriathlon star looking strong; calgary’s daniel also competes in able–bodied junior elite events. Edmonton Journal, 2 September 2015; C1. [Google Scholar]
- Ewing, L. Canada’s daniel wins silver with strong run in debut of paralympic triathlon. The Canadian Press, 10 September 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Odland, K. Paratriathlete takes it all in stride; stefan daniel sets his sights on 2016 in Rio. Calgary Herald, 16 August 2014; D3. [Google Scholar]
- Cruickshank, S. Triathlete races to another top year; ‘para–guy’ daniel opened eyes in 2015. Calgary Herald, 15 March 2016; B7. [Google Scholar]
- Media Advisory/Photo & Video Opportunity. Chef de mission chantal petitclerc continues Canadian tour in calgary to promote paralympic sport on the road to Rio 2016. Canada NewsWire, 13 January 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Willems, S. Carleton university to be site of national paratriathlon academy; academy creates a partnership with triathlon canada. Ottawa East EMC, 2013 February 2013; 15. [Google Scholar]
- Willems, S. Paratriathlon academy comes to town; carleton university to host new national training venture. Ottawa West EMC, 7 February 2013; 11. [Google Scholar]
- Northumberland News. Parasport games open in cobourg friday. Northumberland News, 30 May 2014; 1. [Google Scholar]
- Canadian paralympic goalball teams announced at variety village in scarborough. The Scarborough Mirror, 30 August 2016; 1.
- Kelowna Capital News. Apple triathlon adds paratriathlon event. Kelowna Capital News, 16 March 2014; 1. [Google Scholar]
- Barnes, D. The world is catching canada at paralympics. Edmonton Journal, 30 August 2016; B1. [Google Scholar]
- Strong, G. Whitfield hopes younger Canadian triathletes step up in coming years. The Canadian Press, 4 December 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Harnett, A. Escaping the evil avenger and the supercrip: Images of disability in popular television. Ir. Commun. Rev. 2000, 8, 21–29. [Google Scholar]
- Myers Hardin, M.; Hardin, B. The ‘supercrip’ in sport media: Wheelchair athletes discuss hegemony‘s disabled hero. Sociol. Sport Online 2004, 7. [Google Scholar]
- Brittain, I. Perception of disability and their impact upon involvement in sports for people with disabilities at all levels. J. Sport Soc. Issues 2004, 28, 429–452. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kew, F. Sport: Social Problems and Issues; Routledge: London, UK, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Collins, M. Sport and Social Exclusion; Routledge: London, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Berger, R. Disability and the dedicated wheelchair athlete: Beyond the “Supercrip”. Crit. J. Contemp. Ethnogr. 2008, 37, 647–678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Howe, P.D. Cyborg and supercrip: The paralympics technology and the (dis) empowerment of disabled athletes. Sociology 2011, 45, 868–882. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Silva, C.F.; Howe, P.D. The (in)validity of supercrip representation of paralympian athletes. J. Sport Soc. Issues 2012, 36, 174–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Legg, D. A personal reflection on how we can communicate about paralympic athletes. In Reframing Disability?: Media,(Dis) Empowerment, and Voice in the 2012 Paralympics; Danel, J., Caroline, E.M.H., Eds.; Taylor & Francis: New York, NY, USA, 2015; pp. 246–261. [Google Scholar]
- Commission for Disabled Staff in Lifelong Learning. From Compliance to Culture Change: Disabled Staff Working in Lifelong Learning. Available online: https://www.ucu.org.uk/media/5061/From-Compliance-to-Culture-Change-NIACE-report/pdf/From_Compliance_to_Culture_Change.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Barbash, F. The Audacity of Oscar Pistorius: The Athlete Who Said ‘I’m Not Disabled’ Used Disability as a Defense. Available online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/09/12/the-audacity-of-oscar-pistorius-the-athlete-who-said-im-not-disabled-used-disability-as-a-defense/ (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Wolbring, G.; Legg, D.; Stahnisch, F.W. Meaning of inclusion throughout the history of the paralympic games and movement. Int. J. Sport Soc. 2010, 1, 81–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Paralympic Committee (IPC). Paralympics—History of the Movement. 2018. Available online: https://www.paralympic.org/the-ipc/history-of-the-movement (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Macfarlane, C.; Lewis, A. American Great Lindsey Vonn Determined to Race against Men. Available online: https://www.cnn.com/2017/10/27/sport/lindsey-vonn-mens-downhill-soelden-world-cup-winter-olympics/index.html (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Nord, D.P. A republican literature: A study of magazine reading and readers in late eighteenth–century New York. Am. Q. 1988, 40, 42–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abroms, L.C.; Maibach, E.W. The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior. Annul. Rev. Public. Health 2008, 29, 219–234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Picard, R.G.; Pickard, V. Essential Principles for Contemporary Media and Communications Policymaking. Available online: https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Essential%20Principles%20for%20Contemporary%20Media%20and%20Communications%20Policymaking.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Lyytimäki, J. Mainstreaming climate policy: The role of media coverage in Finland. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang. 2011, 16, 649–661. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Triathlon Canada. Triathlon Canada’s Full 2017–2020 Strategic Plan. Available online: https://www.triathloncanada.com/wp-content/uploads/Triathlon-Strategic-Plan-2017-2020-v11.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Triathlon Canada. Social Media Policy. Available online: https://www.triathloncanada.com/wp-content/uploads/Social-Media-Policy_2018.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- International Triathlon Union. Itu Strategic Plan 2018–2021. Available online: https://www.triathlon.org/uploads/docs/ITU_StrategicPlan_2018_2021_V4withChanges_Edmontonv3.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Lyle, J. Sporting Success, Role Models and Participation: A Policy Related Review Research Report No. 101. Available online: https://sportscotland.org.uk/documents/resources/sportingsuccessrolemodelsandparticipation.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2018).
- Cómez-Mármol, A.; Martínez, B.J.S.-A.; Sánchez, E.D.L.C.; Valero, A.; González-Víllora, S. Personal and social responsibility development through sport participation in youth scholars. J. Phys. Educ. Sport 2017, 17, 775. [Google Scholar]
- Malinauskas, R.K.; Juodsnukis, D.R. Education of social responsibility among sports schools students. Eur. J. Contemp. Educ. 2017, 6, 289–296. [Google Scholar]
- Bundon, A.; Hurd Clarke, L. Honey or vinegar? Athletes with disabilities discuss strategies for advocacy within the paralympic movement. J. Sport Soc. Issues 2015, 39, 351–370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, B.; Bundon, A.; Best, M. Disability sport and activist identities: A qualitative study of narratives of activism among elite athletes’ with impairment. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 2016, 26, 139–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Spencer, N.E.; Adamson, M.; Allgayer, S.; Castaneda, Y.; Haugen, M.; King-White, R.; Kluch, Y.; Rinehart, R.E.; Walton–Fisette, T. Teach-ins as performance ethnography: Athletes’ social activism in north American sport. Int. Rev. Qual. Res. 2016, 9, 489–514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Braye, S. ‘I’m not an activist’: An exploratory investigation into retired british paralympic athletes’ views on the relationship between the paralympic games and disability equality in the united kingdom. Disabil. Soc. 2016, 31, 1288–1300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Search Terms||Pub Date 1980–2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017||Total|
|“para-triathlon” OR “paratriathlon” OR “paratriathlete” OR “para-triathlete”||0||1||10||5||12||31||21||20||61||7||167|
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Wolbring, G.; Martin, B. Analysis of the Coverage of Paratriathlon and Paratriathletes in Canadian Newspapers. Sports 2018, 6, 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030087
Wolbring G, Martin B. Analysis of the Coverage of Paratriathlon and Paratriathletes in Canadian Newspapers. Sports. 2018; 6(3):87. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030087Chicago/Turabian Style
Wolbring, Gregor, and Brian Martin. 2018. "Analysis of the Coverage of Paratriathlon and Paratriathletes in Canadian Newspapers" Sports 6, no. 3: 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030087