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Open AccessReview

Determinants and Reasons for Dropout in Swimming —Systematic Review

Sport Science School of Rio Maior (ESDRM-IPSANTAREM), 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal
Research Center in Sport, Health and Human Development, (CIDESD), 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Department of Sport Science, University of Beira-Interior (UBI), 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2017, 5(3), 50;
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
The present research aims to systematically review the determinants and reasons for swimming dropout. The systematic review was conducted through electronic searches on the Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo databases from 2 February to 29 July 2015, using the keywords dropout, withdrawal, motives, reasons, sport, framework-theories, motivation, swim*, review, attrition and compliance. Fifteen studies were found and six were fully reviewed and its data extracted and analysed. Most studies were undertaken in Canada and in the United States of America (USA), and one study was conducted in Spain. Most participants were female (65.74%), and the main reasons for dropout were ‘conflicts with their trainers’, ‘other things to do’, ‘competence improvements’ failure’, ‘parents, couples or trainers’ pressure’, ‘lack of enjoyment’ and ‘get bored’. This review contributes to the present knowledge on the understanding of dropout in swimming. However, it is necessary to continue researching on this topic, validating measurement instruments and studying the motivational processes related to dropout and persistence. View Full-Text
Keywords: attrition; swimming; reasons; systematic review attrition; swimming; reasons; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monteiro, D.; Cid, L.; Marinho, D.A.; Moutão, J.; Vitorino, A.; Bento, T. Determinants and Reasons for Dropout in Swimming —Systematic Review. Sports 2017, 5, 50.

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