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Insects 2018, 9(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9020054

Organochlorine Pesticides in Honey and Pollen Samples from Managed Colonies of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus and the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin from Southern, Mexico

1
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur Unidad Tapachula, Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto Km 2.5, Tapachula 30700, Chiapas, Mexico
2
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur Unidad San Cristóbal de las Casas, Periférico Sur s/n, María Auxiliadora, San Cristóbal de Las Casas 29290, Chiapas, Mexico
3
Centro Regional de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Laboratorio de Resistencia a Insecticidas, 4a. Norte y 19 Calle Poniente S/N, Tapachula 30700, Chiapas, Mexico
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stressors on Bee Health)
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Abstract

In this paper, we show the results of investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides in honey and pollen samples from managed colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. and of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Three colonies of each species were moved into each of two sites. Three samples of pollen and three samples of honey were collected from each colony: the first collection occurred at the beginning of the study and the following ones at every six months during a year. Thus the total number of samples collected was 36 for honey (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana) and 36 for pollen (18 for A. mellifera and 18 for S. mexicana). We found that 88.44% and 93.33% of honey samples, and 22.22% and 100% of pollen samples of S. mexicana and A. mellifera, respectively, resulted positive to at least one organochlorine. The most abundant pesticides were Heptaclor (44% of the samples), γ-HCH (36%), DDT (19%), Endrin (18%) and DDE (11%). Despite the short foraging range of S. mexicana, the number of pesticides quantified in the honey samples was similar to that of A. mellifera. Paradoxically we found a small number of organochlorines in pollen samples of S. mexicana in comparison to A. mellifera, perhaps indicating a low abundance of pollen sources within the foraging range of this species. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; native bee; persistency; biomonitoring pesticides; native bee; persistency; biomonitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ruiz-Toledo, J.; Vandame, R.; Castro-Chan, R.A.; Penilla-Navarro, R.P.; Gómez, J.; Sánchez, D. Organochlorine Pesticides in Honey and Pollen Samples from Managed Colonies of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus and the Stingless Bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin from Southern, Mexico. Insects 2018, 9, 54.

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