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Article

Impact of Temperature on the Immune Interaction between a Parasitoid Wasp and Drosophila Host Species

Université Côte d’Azur, INRAE, CNRS, ISA, 06 903 Sophia Antipolis, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
F.C. present address: Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
D.C. and M.P. should be considered joint last authors.
Academic Editors: Foray Vincent, Philippe Louâpre and Thierry Hance
Insects 2021, 12(7), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070647
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 4 July 2021 / Accepted: 12 July 2021 / Published: 15 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Plasticity and Adaptation in Insects)
Global warming affects most species and their interaction s. Insects are ectotherms, meaning their body temperature is affected by the ambient temperature. This is particularly important for koinobiont parasitoids, insects that keep their host insect alive during development of their eggs and larvae, the host eventually being consumed before adult parasitoids emerge. Temperature changes could therefore affect parasitoids directly and/or indirectly through their impact on the host. Here, we tested the effect of temperature on the parasitic success of two parasitoid lines on two host species, and on each partner independently, to determine whether the host immune response and/or the parasitoid venom proteins, injected with the egg to counteract the host immune response, were affected. The host’s immune defense consists of forming a capsule surrounding the parasitoid egg. In half of the interactions tested, the parasitic success increased with temperature. For one, the increase appeared to result solely from an increased capacity of the parasitoid to escape from a capsule, while for the second, it also appeared to involve a decrease in host encapsulation capacity. Finally, we observed a strong change in venom composition depending on the rearing temperature which may partially explain the change in parasitic success.
Temperature is particularly important for ectotherms, including endoparasitoid wasps that develop inside another ectotherm host. In this study, we tested the impact of three temperatures (20 °C, 25 °C and 30 °C) on the host–parasitoid immune interaction using two Drosophila host species (Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba) and two parasitoid lines of Leptopilina boulardi. Drosophila’s immune defense against parasitoids consists of the formation of a melanized capsule surrounding the parasitoid egg. To counteract this response, Leptopilina parasitoids rely on the injection of venom during oviposition. Here, we tested the effect of temperature on parasitic success and host encapsulation capacity in response to a parasitoid egg or other foreign body. Increased temperature either promoted or did not affect the parasitic success, depending on the parasitoid–host pairs considered. The mechanisms behind the higher success seemed to vary depending on whether the temperature primarily affected the host immune response or also affected the parasitoid counter-immune response. Next, we tested the effect of parasitoid rearing temperature on its success and venom composition. Venom composition varied strongly with temperature for both parasitoid lines, partially consistent with a change in their parasitic success. Overall, temperature may have a significant impact on the host–parasitoid immune interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: parasitoid wasp; Drosophila; temperature; encapsulation; venom composition; parasitic success; phenotypic plasticity parasitoid wasp; Drosophila; temperature; encapsulation; venom composition; parasitic success; phenotypic plasticity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cavigliasso, F.; Gatti, J.-L.; Colinet, D.; Poirié, M. Impact of Temperature on the Immune Interaction between a Parasitoid Wasp and Drosophila Host Species. Insects 2021, 12, 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070647

AMA Style

Cavigliasso F, Gatti J-L, Colinet D, Poirié M. Impact of Temperature on the Immune Interaction between a Parasitoid Wasp and Drosophila Host Species. Insects. 2021; 12(7):647. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cavigliasso, Fanny, Jean-Luc Gatti, Dominique Colinet, and Marylène Poirié. 2021. "Impact of Temperature on the Immune Interaction between a Parasitoid Wasp and Drosophila Host Species" Insects 12, no. 7: 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070647

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