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Article

Genetic Variability, Population Differentiation, and Correlations for Thermal Tolerance Indices in the Minute Wasp, Trichogramma cacoeciae

1
INRAE, Institut Sophia-Agrobiotech, Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, 06903 Sophia Antipolis, France
2
Department of Physics (DIFI), University of Genoa, INFN, 16146 Genoa, Italy
3
CNRS, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive UMR 5558, University of Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vincent Foray, Philippe Louâpre, Thierry Hance and Klaus H. Hoffmann
Insects 2021, 12(11), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111013
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 5 November 2021 / Accepted: 7 November 2021 / Published: 10 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Plasticity and Adaptation in Insects)
Augmentative biological control relies on the more or less frequent/abundant releases of biological control agents (BCAs) that have to be adapted to their short-term local environment including (micro-)climatic conditions. Thermal biology of BCAs is thus a key component for their success. The extent to which thermal tolerance indices may be relevant predictors of the field efficiency is however still poorly documented. Within this frame, we investigated the intraspecific variability for the ability to move at low temperatures in the minute wasp, Trichogramma cacoeciae. We collected, molecularly characterized, and compared for their thermal tolerance indices numerous strains originating from three contrasting geographic areas. Our findings evidenced both a geographic differentiation between strains for one of the thermal tolerance indices and a positive correlation between two of them, demonstrating the existence of an intraspecific variability.
Temperature is a main driver of the ecology and evolution of ectotherms. In particular, the ability to move at sub-lethal low temperatures can be described through three thermal tolerance indices—critical thermal minimum (CTmin), chill coma temperature (CCT), and activity recovery (AR). Although these indices have proven relevant for inter-specific comparisons, little is known about their intraspecific variability as well as possible genetic correlations between them. We thus investigated these two topics (intraspecific variability and genetic correlations between thermal tolerance indices) using the minute wasp, Trichogramma cacoeciae. Strains from T. cacoeciae were sampled across three geographic regions in France—two bioclimatic zones along a sharp altitudinal cline in a Mediterranean context (meso-Mediterranean at low elevations and supra-Mediterranean at higher elevations) and a more northwestern area characterized by continental or mountainous climates. Our results evidenced a significant effect of both the longitude and the severity of the cold during winter months on CCT. Results were however counter-intuitive since the strains from the two bioclimatic zones characterized by more severe winters (northwestern area and supra-Mediterranean) exhibited opposite patterns. In addition, a strong positive correlation was observed between CCT and CTmin. Neither strain differentiation nor the covariations between traits seem to be linked with the molecular diversity observed on the part of the mitochondrial marker COI. View Full-Text
Keywords: chill coma temperature; activity recovery; critical thermal minimum; local adaptation; parasitoids; thermal tolerance indices; Trichogramma chill coma temperature; activity recovery; critical thermal minimum; local adaptation; parasitoids; thermal tolerance indices; Trichogramma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ion Scotta, M.; Margris, L.; Sellier, N.; Warot, S.; Gatti, F.; Siccardi, F.; Gibert, P.; Vercken, E.; Ris, N. Genetic Variability, Population Differentiation, and Correlations for Thermal Tolerance Indices in the Minute Wasp, Trichogramma cacoeciae. Insects 2021, 12, 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111013

AMA Style

Ion Scotta M, Margris L, Sellier N, Warot S, Gatti F, Siccardi F, Gibert P, Vercken E, Ris N. Genetic Variability, Population Differentiation, and Correlations for Thermal Tolerance Indices in the Minute Wasp, Trichogramma cacoeciae. Insects. 2021; 12(11):1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ion Scotta, Michela, Lucas Margris, Nadine Sellier, Sylvie Warot, Flavio Gatti, Fabio Siccardi, Patricia Gibert, Elodie Vercken, and Nicolas Ris. 2021. "Genetic Variability, Population Differentiation, and Correlations for Thermal Tolerance Indices in the Minute Wasp, Trichogramma cacoeciae" Insects 12, no. 11: 1013. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111013

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