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Article

Bmapaf-1 is Involved in the Response against BmNPV Infection by the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212018, China
2
Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Mulberry Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Zhenjiang 212018, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Insects 2020, 11(9), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090647
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control and Insect Pathology)
Apaf-1 is involved in the apoptosis pathway and Bmapaf-1 showed a significant response to BmNPV infection in our previous transcriptome data. In this study, the underlying mechanism of Bmapaf-1 in response to BmNPV infection was studied. To preliminarily determine the relationship of Bmapaf-1 with BmNPV, the expression pattern of Bmapaf-1 was analyzed in different tissues of differentially resistant silkworm strains following virus infection. To further define the role of Bmapaf-1 in BmNPV infection, the alteration of BmNPV infection in BmN cells and the expression patterns of Bmcas-Nc and Bmcas-1 were analyzed following knockdown and overexpression of Bmapaf-1 using siRNA and the pIZT/V5-His-mCherry insect vector, respectively. Furthermore, to analyze whether Bmapaf-1 is involved in BmNPV infection by apoptosis, the inducer NSC348884 and inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK were used.
Discovery of the anti-BmNPV (Bombyx mori nuclearpolyhedrovirus) silkworm strain suggests that some kind of antiviral molecular mechanism does exist but is still unclear. Apoptosis, as an innate part of the immune system, plays an important role in the response against pathogen infections and may be involved in the anti-BmNPV infection. Several candidate genes involved in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were identified from our previous study. Bombyx mori apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 (Bmapaf-1) was one of them, but the antiviral mechanism is still unclear. In this study, sequences of BmApaf-1 were characterized. It was found to contain a unique transposase_1 functional domain and share high CARD and NB-ARC domains with other species. Relatively high expression levels of Bmapaf-1 were found at key moments of embryonic development, metamorphosis, and reproductive development. Further, the significant difference in expression of Bmapaf-1 in different tissues following virus infection indicated its close relationship with BmNPV, which was further validated by RNAi and overexpression in BmN cells. Briefly, infection of budded virus with enhanced green fluorescent protein (BV-EGFP) was significantly inhibited at 72 h after overexpression of Bmapaf-1, which was confirmed after knockdown of Bmapaf-1 with siRNA. Moreover, the downstream genes of Bmapaf-1, including Bmnedd2-like caspase (BmNc) and Bmcaspase-1 (Bmcas-1), were upregulated after overexpression of Bmapaf-1 in BmN cells, which was consistent with the RNAi results. Furthermore, the phenomenon of Bmapaf-1 in response to BmNPV infection was determined to be related to apoptosis using the apoptosis inducer NSC348884 and inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. Therefore, Bmapaf-1 is involved in the response against BmNPV infection by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. This result provides valuable data for clarifying the anti-BmNPV mechanism of silkworms and breeding of resistant silkworm strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bombyx mori; BmNPV; apoptotic protease-activating factor 1; mitochondrial apoptosis pathway; response analysis Bombyx mori; BmNPV; apoptotic protease-activating factor 1; mitochondrial apoptosis pathway; response analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.-y.; Ding, X.-y.; Chen, Q.-y.; Zhang, K.-x.; Zhao, C.-x.; Tang, X.-d.; Wu, Y.-c.; Li, M.-w. Bmapaf-1 is Involved in the Response against BmNPV Infection by the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway. Insects 2020, 11, 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090647

AMA Style

Wang X-y, Ding X-y, Chen Q-y, Zhang K-x, Zhao C-x, Tang X-d, Wu Y-c, Li M-w. Bmapaf-1 is Involved in the Response against BmNPV Infection by the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway. Insects. 2020; 11(9):647. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Xue-yang, Xin-yi Ding, Qian-ying Chen, Kai-xiang Zhang, Chun-xiao Zhao, Xu-dong Tang, Yang-chun Wu, and Mu-wang Li. 2020. "Bmapaf-1 is Involved in the Response against BmNPV Infection by the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway" Insects 11, no. 9: 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090647

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