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Open AccessArticle

Temperature Tolerance and Thermal Environment of European Seed Bugs

1
Institute of Biology, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
2
National Museum of Natural History, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
3
School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
4
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Livestock Products, and Nutrition Physiology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180 Vienna, Austria
5
AGES, The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, 1220 Vienna, Austria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11030197
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects-Environment Interaction)
Heteroptera, or true bugs populate many climate zones, coping with different environmental conditions. The aim of this study was the evaluation of their thermal limits and derived traits, as well as climatological parameters which might influence their distribution. We assessed the thermal limits (critical thermal maxima, CTmax, and minima, CTmin) of eight seed bug species (Lygaeidae, Pyrrhocoridae) distributed over four Köppen–Geiger climate classification types (KCC), approximately 6° of latitude, and four European countries (Austria, Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria). In test tubes, a temperature ramp was driven down to −5 °C for CTmin and up to 50 °C for CTmax (0.25 °C/min) until the bugs’ voluntary, coordinated movement stopped. In contrast to CTmin, CTmax depended significantly on KCC, species, and body mass. CTmax showed high correlation with bioclimatic parameters such as annual mean temperature and mean maximum temperature of warmest month (BIO5), as well as three parameters representing temperature variability. CTmin correlated with mean annual temperature, mean minimum temperature of coldest month (BIO6), and two parameters representing variability. Although the derived trait cold tolerance (TC = BIO6 − CTmin) depended on several bioclimatic variables, heat tolerance (TH = CTmax − BIO5) showed no correlation. Seed bugs seem to have potential for further range shifts in the face of global warming. View Full-Text
Keywords: true bugs; thermal limits; distribution; bioclimatic parameters; climate true bugs; thermal limits; distribution; bioclimatic parameters; climate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Käfer, H.; Kovac, H.; Simov, N.; Battisti, A.; Erregger, B.; Schmidt, A.K.D.; Stabentheiner, A. Temperature Tolerance and Thermal Environment of European Seed Bugs. Insects 2020, 11, 197.

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