Next Article in Journal
Genetic Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Associated with Cassava and the Occurrence of Cassava Mosaic Disease in Zambia
Previous Article in Journal
Ontogenesis of Aldehyde Pheromones in Two Synanthropic Bed Bug Species (Heteroptera: Cimicidae)
 
 
Article

The Role of Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) as a Potential Dispersive Agent of Noctuid Baculoviruses

1
Unidad de Protección de Cultivos, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Puerta de Hierro, 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Research & Development Department, Bioinsectis SL. Pol. Ind. Mocholi Plaza Cein 5, Nave A14, 31110 Noain, Navarra, Spain
3
Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Applied Biology, Universidad Pública de Navarra, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(11), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110760
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 2 November 2020 / Accepted: 3 November 2020 / Published: 5 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Behavior and Pathology)
Baculoviruses (BV) infect several lepidopteran pests of economic importance, such as the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. The joint use of microbiological and macrobiological strategies may improve the efficacy of control. Laboratory bioassays were developed to evaluate the interactions between two BVs: the multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses of S. exigua (SeMNPV) and Autographa californica (AcMNPV), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea. The excretion products of the predator’s larvae (drops) and adults (meconia) were microscopically examined after the ingestion of BV-infected S. exigua larvae. For both types of excreta and BVs, viral occlusion bodies (OBs) (resistance forms) were observed. These OBs were infective to healthy S. exigua larvae when applied in water suspension and in direct deposition. The virulence of meconia was higher in suspensions (higher viral load), while larval drops were more virulent in direct application due to their liquid nature and their easiness of consumption. The fitness of C. carnea was slightly affected by the consumption of both BV-infected prey. No preference was shown between healthy and BV-infected S. exigua, and both were preferred vs. the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Our findings present C. carnea, and particularly its larvae, as a promissory candidate for BV dispersion in the field.
Baculoviruses (BV) are highly effective against lepidopteran pests of economic importance such as Spodoptera exigua. The combined use of entomopathogens and macrobiological control agents requires the study of their relationships. Laboratory bioassays were developed to evaluate the interactions between the multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses of S. exigua (SeMNPV) and Autographa californica (AcMNPV), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea. The microscopic examination of predator’s excreta (larval drops and meconia) after the ingestion of BV-infected S. exigua revealed the presence of viral occlusion bodies (OBs). The reinfection of S. exigua larvae with BVs-contaminated excreta by using OBs water suspensions or by direct application both yielded high mortality values but different speed-of-kill results. Meconia killed before in suspensions due to their higher viral load and larval excretion drops did so in direct application due to their liquid nature and their easiness of consumption. The prey-mediated ingestion of SeMNPV and AcMNPV triggered slight effects in C. carnea, which were probably derived from the food nutritional quality. Chrysoperla carnea larvae did not discriminate between healthy and BV-infected S. exigua, while a preference was shown for S. exigua (healthy or infected) vs. Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Our findings present C. carnea, and particularly its larvae, as a promissory candidate for BV dispersion in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: AcMNPV; excretion products; horizontal transmission; occlusion bodies; SeMNPV AcMNPV; excretion products; horizontal transmission; occlusion bodies; SeMNPV
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, O.G.; Adán, Á.; Beperet, I.; Medina, P.; Caballero, P.; Garzón, A. The Role of Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) as a Potential Dispersive Agent of Noctuid Baculoviruses. Insects 2020, 11, 760. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110760

AMA Style

Gutiérrez-Cárdenas OG, Adán Á, Beperet I, Medina P, Caballero P, Garzón A. The Role of Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) as a Potential Dispersive Agent of Noctuid Baculoviruses. Insects. 2020; 11(11):760. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110760

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, Oscar Giovanni, Ángeles Adán, Inés Beperet, Pilar Medina, Primitivo Caballero, and Agustín Garzón. 2020. "The Role of Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) as a Potential Dispersive Agent of Noctuid Baculoviruses" Insects 11, no. 11: 760. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110760

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop