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Article

Ontogenesis of Aldehyde Pheromones in Two Synanthropic Bed Bug Species (Heteroptera: Cimicidae)

1
Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(11), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110759
Received: 3 October 2020 / Revised: 1 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 November 2020 / Published: 5 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Bed Bugs)
The common (Cimex lectularius) and tropical (C. hemipterus) bed bugs are widespread blood-feeding human pests. To better understand their chemical ecology, the current study quantified the four most abundant bed bug aldehydes in the bed bugs’ immature stages by extracting their freshly shed exuviae. We also quantified the two most abundant aldehydes in adult bed bugs via surface extraction. Quantitative comparisons are made across different developmental stages (nymph), species (nymph and adult), or sexes (adult). In immature bed bugs, significant quantitative differences of four aldehydes were found across developmental stages within a species, and between species within a stage. Similarly, in adult bed bugs, a significant difference in the ratio of (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal was found between species. This study provides the first systematic quantification of these aldehydes for all five of the nymphal stages for both C. lectularius and C. hemipterus.
Bed bugs produce volatile aldehydes that have alarm and aggregation functions. Using two synanthropic bed bug species, Cimex lectularius L. and C. hemipterus (Fabricius), developmental changes were examined for (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal, the four most abundant aldehydes shared between the two species. Quantitative analyses of the aldehydes in the nymphal exuviae indicated that the aldehydes’ ratio remained similar throughout nymphal development. In general, (E)-2-octenal was most abundant, and (E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were least abundant. The fourth aldehyde, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, was present in intermediate quantities. The quantities and percent abundances of the aldehydes in nymphal exuviae and the adults were significantly different between C. lectularius and C. hemipterus. The ratio between (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal was determined in adult male and female bed bugs of each species. Adult C. hemipterus had a higher proportion of (E)-2-hexenal than C. lectularius, while no sex differences were found. This work provides the first systematic quantification of four aldehydes [(E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal] for all five of the nymphal stages for both C. lectularius and C. hemipterus. View Full-Text
Keywords: bed bug; Cimex lectularius; Cimex hemipterus; aldehyde; ontogenesis bed bug; Cimex lectularius; Cimex hemipterus; aldehyde; ontogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dery, M.; Arriola, K.; Lee, C.-Y.; Choe, D.-H. Ontogenesis of Aldehyde Pheromones in Two Synanthropic Bed Bug Species (Heteroptera: Cimicidae). Insects 2020, 11, 759. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110759

AMA Style

Dery M, Arriola K, Lee C-Y, Choe D-H. Ontogenesis of Aldehyde Pheromones in Two Synanthropic Bed Bug Species (Heteroptera: Cimicidae). Insects. 2020; 11(11):759. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110759

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dery, Mark, Kyle Arriola, Chow-Yang Lee, and Dong-Hwan Choe. 2020. "Ontogenesis of Aldehyde Pheromones in Two Synanthropic Bed Bug Species (Heteroptera: Cimicidae)" Insects 11, no. 11: 759. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110759

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