Locusts are short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera) belonging to the family Acrididae. A hallmark of locust biology is their density-dependent phase-plasticity, in which individuals will express vastly different behavioral, morphological, and physiological phenotypes according to the different population density levels they experience [1
]. Locusts are probably best known, however, for their devastating potential to cause immense damage to natural vegetation and crops, as they are able to aggregate and migrate in swarms so large and destructive that they are commonly termed a plague. Consequently, locusts have been the focus of extensive research efforts, mostly seeking to better understand the mechanisms underlying the locust swarming phenomenon.
Although not part of the major emphasis of previous locust research, data concerning the characterization of locusts’ bacterial symbionts were published already in the late 1950s [4
]; and since then a multitude of important observations have accumulated regarding the nature of locust–bacteria interactions [7
]. Some of these findings were already summarized, nearly 20 years ago, by Dillon and Charnley [10
], but ever since their extensive review, many new data have been collected, and vast improvements in sequencing technology have allowed researchers to ask and answer questions previously beyond our reach. The wealth of new findings in recent years calls for an update, incorporating the essential details of our current knowledge of locust-bacteria associations.
In this concise review, we provide an updated summary of the nature of locust bacterial symbionts and their distribution in the host, as well as hypothesized effects on the locust biology and life history. We mainly focus on the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), which most of the studies conducted to date have explored. However, the main ideas presented will be largely applicable to other locust species, albeit perhaps with different bacterial players.
3. Locust–Bacteria Mutualism
Bacterial symbionts have been repeatedly shown to play an important role in the biology of diverse insect species [30
]. In a number of studies, bacteria were reported to augment aphid resistance to various stressors [31
], to protect the gardens from Attine ants from pathogens [34
], to protect wasp-larvae from potential pathogens [35
], and more. The symbiotic nature of the locust–bacteria interaction has also been studied extensively, mostly in the desert locust and to some extent also in the migratory locust [10
As noted above, the bacterial composition of the desert locust foregut was found to be roughly similar to that of the food ingested by the locusts. The bacterial community of the hindgut, however, differed from that in the food and the foregut, demonstrating a higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae
]. This finding and the multiple subsequent confirmations of the stable presence of Enterobacteriaceae
species in the locust hindgut suggested a selective basis for the interaction of S. gregria
and bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae
family. Dillon and Charnley [10
] hypothesized that the neutral pH of the hindgut (along with the presence of organic acids and plant remains) supports the proliferation of Enterobacteriaceae
. This hypothesis was confirmed to some extent in L. migratoria
by Shi et al. [14
], who observed that acidification of the locust’s hindgut by entomopathogenic fungus reduced the bacterial colony-forming units (CFU) isolated from this organ. Those authors also demonstrated experimentally, by mimicking the acidification effect of the fungus on the hindgut, that the growth of locust-isolated Enterobacter
) was almost completely inhibited when pH dropped from 6.3 (as in the hindgut of healthy L. migratoria
) to 5.6 (reflecting the fungus impact). The growth of locust-isolated Weissella
, and Microbacterium
was inhibited by the low pH of 5.6, though not to the same extent as the tested Enterobacter
. Consequently, although the locusts had clearly not developed obligatory interactions with any specific bacteria, the specific conditions in their hindgut seem to have been selected for the proliferation of certain bacterial groups, including the Enterobacteriaceae
Native bacteria of the desert locust’s hindgut have been shown to augment host immunity through colonization resistance (CR), thereby making it less susceptible to pathogenic infections [12
]. This is largely due to the bacterial synthesis of antifungal and antimicrobial phenolic compounds [35
]. The antimicrobial nature of these compounds not only protects the locust from the establishment of pathogens, but also probably contributes to the selective conditions in the locust hindgut, creating favorable conditions for the anti-microbial tolerant native bacteria of the locust gut [10
Two of the reported bacteria-secreted phenolic compounds, phenol and guaiacol, were also suggested as a dominant fraction of a cohesion pheromone, considered to help in maintaining the integrity of S. gregaria
]. Both phenol and guaiacol were shown to be produced by three bacterial species in the locust hindgut: Pantoea agglomerans
, Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumoniae
, and Enterobacter cloacae
(all from the Enterobacteriaceae
family), when incubated on axenic (i.e., bacteria-free) locust fecal pellets. The precursor for these phenolic compounds in the gut is the lignin-derived vanillic acid present in the locust’s food. Serratia marcescens
a member of the Enterobacteriaceae
which is not a regular inhabitant of the locust gut, did not produce the same phenolic volatiles [11
], reinforcing the hypothesis of a mutual symbiosis between the host and specific bacterial species. Additional information on the phenolic compounds produced by the desert locust’s gut bacteria can be found in the excellent review by Dillon and Charnley [10
4. Transgenerational Transmission of Bacterial Symbionts
Desert locusts are highly polyphagous, and therefore have not developed a known obligatory symbiosis with any bacterial species, unlike the obligate–symbiosis interactions known in many diet-restricted insects [1
]. Nevertheless, as noted above, it seems that locusts have formed a tight and constant interaction with some bacterial species (i.e., species of the Enterobacteriaceae
family). Although the benefits of this symbiotic association are clear, it is still not completely understood how this interaction is maintained across locust generations. Based on the findings of Hunt and Charnley [8
] and the successful rearing of axenic locusts, Dillon and Charnley [10
] suggested that the source of locust bacterial symbionts is the ingested food, and that the locust gut selects for the favorable symbionts. The issue of where gut symbionts originate from has been revisited in a recent study by our group. In a series of controlled experiments, we have shown that female locusts share their gut-derived bacterial amplicon sequences variants (ASVs) of Enterobacter
with their offspring. The inoculation vector ensuring the successful transgenerational transmission of bacterial symbionts was found to be the foam deposited above the egg pod following oviposition (through which the larvae climb upon hatching). This was supported by an experiment demonstrating that females inoculated the foam plug with viable K. pneumonia
marked with an antibiotic resistance marker [17
]. This study further presented the foam plug as a selective medium, favoring some bacterial species and inhibiting others, probably due to immune-related proteins such as lysozyme, which were found to be present in the foam.
Based on the current knowledge, therefore, we suggest that locusts acquire their bacterial symbionts through both food intake and parental inoculation. Swarms of gregarious locusts perform multigenerational migrations across vast distances, resulting in the locusts encountering different food plants and the females ovipositing in unfamiliar (soil and food-wise) territories [29
]. This mixed inoculation model ensures that the offspring will harbor the beneficial symbionts. The vertical transmission of K. pneumonia
—a known nitrogen-fixing bacterium [41
]—is especially interesting in the context of locust swarming and migration, since it may serve to compensate for poor/insufficient nutrition that locusts may encounter during long-distance migration.
5. Bacterial Symbionts and Density-Dependent Phase Polyphenism
Locusts are known to express two extreme phenotypes [1
], Figure 2
. When at high density, locusts tend to aggregate and migrate in swarms, consuming vast amounts of vegetation, and are thus considered to be a major agricultural pest. At low density, however, locusts tend to behave cryptically. They are relatively sedentary, repelled by conspecifics are at too low a density to cause severe damage to crops. This remarkable example of phenotype plasticity is known as density-dependent phase polyphenism, and has been amply investigated for reviews see: [1
]. The seminal findings concerning the bacterial origin of S. gregaria
cohesion pheromone components [11
], provided a strong indication that bacterial symbionts may play a role in locust phase polyphenism.
Dillon et al. [13
] used the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique and 16S rRNA sequencing to explore and compare the bacterial composition of gregarious, transient (intermediate phase), and solitary field-caught brown locusts. They showed that the gut of gregarious and transient individuals contained a more complex bacterial composition compared to the solitary locust gut bacterial microbiota. Discussing these results, the authors raised the possibility that locusts of different phases regulate their microbiota differently. They hypothesized that while bacterial symbionts may take a toll on their host’s energetic resources, and at times may even become pathogenic, they might also serve as immune-augmenting agents. The gregarious locusts, living at high densities with high exposure to pathogens, are therefore likely to harbor a more diverse microbiota, potentially supported by host-derived nutrients; whereas for solitary locusts, which experience lower exposure to pathogens, a simpler gut bacterial profile would suffice, imposing a lower energetic cost, albeit at greater risk of pathogenic infections [13
]. This hypothesis is somewhat supported by the report of Wilson et al. [42
], who found that gregarious locusts show higher pathogen resistance due to increased antimicrobial activity.
However, our recent study aimed at directly investigating the role of density per se on the bacterial composition residing within the hindgut of the desert locust did not reveal the same pattern of phase-dependent bacterial complexity [15
]. Sequential sampling of laboratory-reared gregarious and solitary locusts revealed that while the solitary locust bacterial composition had remained roughly the same across the different sampling periods, the gregarious bacterial composition was either similar to that of the solitary locusts or, alternatively, taken-over by a dominant bacterial strain of Weissella
sp., spreading within their dense population [15
]. One possible explanation for the discrepancy between these findings and the findings described by Dillon et al. [13
] for the brown locust’s bacterial profile (beyond genus-dependent difference), may lie in the locusts’ diet. While the laboratory insects of both phases were fed the exact same food, the field-caught gregarious and solitary locusts may have consumed different diets, particularly since gregarious and solitary locusts in the field tend to demonstrate different feeding patterns; with the gregarious diet being more diverse [1
], driving their gut bacteria composition towards higher complexity, in accord with the findings of Dillon et al. [13
]. Another possible explanation lies in the findings concerning the temporal changes in the gregarious bacterial composition. If the microbiota of the alimentary tract fluctuates across time, a sequential sampling protocol is needed in order to fully uncover the nature of the gut bacterial dynamics. Either way, it seems that while the locust gut bacterial composition may be affected by the different feeding patterns of gregarious and solitary locusts, the density-dependent phase per-se does not dictate the differences in the gut bacterial composition—meaning that there is no phase-dependent bacterial regulation by the host in the desert locust. These findings, of course, do not rule out the existence of a tentative density-dependent phase bacterial regulation mechanism in other locusts.
Continuous sampling and comparison of the bacterial composition in the spermatheca of laboratory-reared female desert locusts across several years have revealed a similar trend of occasional bacterial blooms in the gregarious females, while the solitary females maintained the same bacterial diversity across all sampling intervals [16
]. These data suggest that while the locust’s bacterial composition may show no direct interactions with the locust density-dependent phase, it may nonetheless be affected indirectly by the different life histories of solitary and gregarious animals.
Recent new laboratory-collected data on the impact of a phase shift on the gut and integument microbiota indicate that upon joining a gregarious population, the gut bacterial composition of solitary S. gregaria
undergoes a change to become similar to that of the gregarious phenotype, including the same Weissella cibaria
-dominated composition as in the gregarious population [18
]. This is in accord with the reported results regarding temporal shifts in the bacterial dynamics of gregarious lab populations [15
is also widely abundant in the gut of gregarious L. migratioria
], and was found to induce aggregation in nymphs of the German cockroach [43
]. This suggests that the W. cibaria
linkage to gregarious locusts may be stronger than previously considered, and may imply it has a colonization advantage in dense populations. Furthermore, this also raises the possibility that Weissella
may even act as a crowding-promoting bacterium, contributing to the swarm’s integrity [18
6. Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
During the last few decades, the microbiome of insects has been studied thoroughly in a variety of agriculturally and ecologically important species, with the aim of deciphering some of the complex, molecular mechanisms that may be involved in regulating the insect–host biology [20
]. Despite several key discoveries made to date regarding the microbiome of the desert and the migrating locusts, many unanswered questions remain related to the bacterial residents of locusts and to host–microbe interactions. This is especially important in light of locusts being a devastating agricultural insect pest that performs large-scale migrations, and consequently has the ability to both acquire and disseminate microbial agents across vast and different habitats.
Open questions include the type and nature of bacteria residing within other locust species. Details of the interactions between the locust population dynamics and that of their bacterial symbionts are also missing. Specifically, the mechanisms by which a possible aggregation-promoting bacterium, such as Weissella, can drive locust populations towards gregariousness and maintain this state. While the bacterial symbionts in solitary locust field populations are far from fully described, a promising direction is establishing the role of the microbiome in driving phase change and swarming. Revealing such mechanisms may bring us closer to utilizing bacteria or other microbial agents to reduce aggregation and migration during locust eruptions, and thereby also potentially reduce their destructive impact.
Yet another largely uninvestigated—but important—aspect of locust–microbe interactions, is that of the locust’s symbiosis with fungi and viruses. Though some entomopathogenic fungi have been studied in the context of locust control [47
], the fungal and viral compositions of locusts have been largely ignored, despite constituting an important unknown factor in our understanding of locust biology. These possible symbiotic micro-organisms harbor the potential to interact directly or indirectly with the host through other microbial organisms, to affect locust behavior, fitness, aggregation, and even pesticide resistance. Therefore, characterizing the composition of these microorganisms, and the nature of their symbiotic relations with the locust, will fill in an important gap in our knowledge of these fascinating insects.