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Feeding Behavior of Asian Citrus Psyllid [Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)] Nymphs and Adults on Common Weeds Occurring in Cultivated Citrus Described Using Electrical Penetration Graph Recordings

1
Department of Entomology and Nematology, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Rd., Lake Alfred, FL 33850, USA
2
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2001 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
3
Department of Horticulture Sciences, Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 2685 SR 29 North Immokalee, Immokalee, FL 34142, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010048
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing disease. Although they primarily feed on the phloem of Citrus and related plants, when grove or host conditions are unfavorable, D. citri may be able to use weed species as alternate food sources for survival. To explore this possibility, electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings (18 h) were performed to investigate the feeding behavior of psyllid adults and nymphs on three common south Florida weeds (Bidens alba, Eupatorium capillifolium, and Ludwigia octovalvis). EPG recordings revealed that the proportion of time spent by D. citri feeding on xylem was similar on all tested weed species (19%–22%) and on the positive control (20%), the preferred host, Citrus macrophylla. Very little to no phloem feeding was observed on weed species by either nymphs or adults. Histological studies using epifluorescence microscopy showed that salivary sheaths were branched and extended into xylem of weed species, whereas they ended in phloem on citrus plants. No choice behavioral assays showed that adults can obtain some nutrition by feeding on weed species (xylem feeding) and they may be able to survive on them for short intervals, when host conditions are unfavorable. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asian citrus psyllid; Huanglongbing; electrical penetration graph; weed species; xylem feeding Asian citrus psyllid; Huanglongbing; electrical penetration graph; weed species; xylem feeding
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George, J.; Kanissery, R.; Ammar, E.-D.; Cabral, I.; Markle, L.T.; Patt, J.M.; Stelinski, L.L. Feeding Behavior of Asian Citrus Psyllid [Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)] Nymphs and Adults on Common Weeds Occurring in Cultivated Citrus Described Using Electrical Penetration Graph Recordings. Insects 2020, 11, 48.

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