Next Article in Journal
Effect of Diallyl Trisulfide on the Reproductive Behavior of the Grain Moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Next Article in Special Issue
Using Nutritional Geometry to Explore How Social Insects Navigate Nutritional Landscapes
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Climate and Local Habitat Characteristics on Carabid Beetle Abundance and Diversity in Northern Chinese Steppes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Insulin Receptor Substrate Gene Knockdown Accelerates Behavioural Maturation and Shortens Lifespan in Honeybee Workers
Open AccessArticle

Warming Increases Pollen Lipid Concentration in an Invasive Thistle, with Minor Effects on the Associated Floral-Visitor Community

1
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
2
Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16802, USA
3
Department of Entomology, Center for Pollinator Research, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803, USA
4
Department of Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010020
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 25 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Nutritional Resource Exploitation by Insects)
Climate warming is likely to change the ways in which plants interact with their insect mutualists, for example through changes in phytochemistry. In particular, this may have implications for the ways in which we manage noxious weeds, which may spread more quickly if they experience stronger mutualistic interactions. We grew the invasive nodding thistle, Carduus nutans, in two experimental treatments in the field: either passively warmed with open top chambers or at ambient temperatures. We collected pollen from thistles in each treatment and analysed the total protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. We observed no difference in the pollen protein or carbohydrate content, but the total lipid content of the pollen was significantly higher in warmed plants. We conducted a total of 12.75 h of observations of putatively mutualistic, flower-visiting insects. In addition, we spent 4.17 h collecting bees that visited thistle inflorescences in the treatments, allowing us to identify them to species. We found a significant increase in the abundance of flower-visiting insects in the observations, but not bee abundance in collections. In addition, there was no treatment effect on the number of flower-visiting morphotypes in the observations, or bee species richness in the collections. However, a nonparametric test did identify a significant effect of warming on the composition of flower-visiting morphotypes in observations and bee species in collections. Overall, the warming treatment significantly increased lipid content of the pollen, but had relatively weak effects on insect visitation patterns. However, these effects may be amplified at larger spatial and temporal scales or higher temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: mutualisms; pollinators; bees; climate change; experimental warming; Carduus nutans; pollen nutrition mutualisms; pollinators; bees; climate change; experimental warming; Carduus nutans; pollen nutrition
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Russo, L.; Keller, J.; Vaudo, A.D.; Grozinger, C.M.; Shea, K. Warming Increases Pollen Lipid Concentration in an Invasive Thistle, with Minor Effects on the Associated Floral-Visitor Community. Insects 2020, 11, 20.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop