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Open AccessArticle

Toxicity of Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A. C. Sm. Essential Oil to the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

1
National Center for Natural Products Research, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
2
TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development International Laboratory, Innovative Drug Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China
3
Department of BioMolecular Sciences, Division of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(6), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10060162
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C. Smith is an evergreen, woody climbing plant that is widely distributed throughout southwest mainland China. Extracts of this plant are used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases, like cancer and dermatosis, and as an anodyne to relieve pain, while the leaves are used to treat eczema. In the current study, the toxicity of essential oil from its stem (EOKC) was studied against two strains of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius). Essential oil from the plant was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified was β-caryophyllene (24.73%), followed by caryophyllene oxide (5.91%), α-humulene (3.48%), and β-pinene (2.54%). Preliminary screening was performed by topically delivering a 1 µL droplet of the treatments dissolved in acetone. At 24 h after treatment, the EOKC induced mortality rates of 61.9% and 66.7% in the Bayonne and Ft. Dix strains, respectively, at 100 µg/bug. Four major compounds—β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, α-humulene, and β-pinene—were selected based on their availability and were subjected to topical, residual, and fumigation methods. When applied topically, only β-caryophyllene induced high toxicity in both strains. None of the selected compounds induced significant toxicity in the residual and fumigation methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: bed bug; Kadsura coccinea; topical toxicity; β-caryophyllene bed bug; Kadsura coccinea; topical toxicity; β-caryophyllene
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Rehman, J.U.; Wang, M.; Yang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Li, B.; Qin, Y.; Wang, W.; Chittiboyina, A.G.; Khan, I.A. Toxicity of Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A. C. Sm. Essential Oil to the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insects 2019, 10, 162.

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