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Open AccessArticle

Functional Morphology and Defensive Behavior in a Social Aphid

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(6), 163;
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
Social aphids produce different morphs, which are genetically identical but morphologically different. Each morph performs a different duty in its community. Social aphids usually produce morphologically distinct soldiers to protect their colonies. The social aphid Pseudoregma bambucicola produces sterile first instar soldiers with specialized body parts and unique defensive behaviors, such as hind leg waving. By using this species as a research model, this study tested the assumption that the functional morphological basis of defensive behaviors of soldiers is related to specialized body parts. Field observations and a comprehensive morphometric analysis were carried out for natural populations. The results showed significant differences in functional morphology between soldiers, first instar nymphs, and adults. Elongated hind legs in soldiers are an important functional morphological basis for the deimatic behavior of hind leg waving, while sclerotized front legs and head horns are related to the function of directly attacking natural enemies. The size variation of different body parts among different morphs also indicates a cost–benefit trade-off in the evolution of the social aphid species.
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Keywords: morphometry; eusocial aphid; deimatic display; phenotypic plasticity; Hemiptera morphometry; eusocial aphid; deimatic display; phenotypic plasticity; Hemiptera
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Siddiqui, J.A.; Zou, X.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Lin, X.; Huang, X. Functional Morphology and Defensive Behavior in a Social Aphid. Insects 2019, 10, 163.

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