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Open AccessArticle

Integrated Management of Chive Gnats (Bradysia odoriphaga Yang & Zhang) in Chives Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Low-Toxicity Insecticides

1,†, 1,2,† and 1,*
1
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, No. 105 Xingang Road West, Guangzhou 510260, China
2
Weifang Hongrun Agricultural Science & Technology CO., LTD, Weifang Biomedical Industry Park, Gaoxin 2nd Road, Weifang 261061, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Insects 2019, 10(6), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10060161
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract

Bradysia odoriphaga is a major pest that causes damage to chive production, and which has developed resistance to highly toxic chemical insecticides. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) show a high potential for B. odoriphaga control. This study aimed to develop an effective management method against B. odoriphaga larvae, using EPN with low-toxicity insecticides. Fourteen selected insecticides had no significant effects on the survival and infectivity of Steinernema feltiae SN and Heterorhabditis indica LN2. Synergistic interactions were observed for imidacloprid and osthole with S. feltiae SN against B. odoriphaga larvae. Steinernema feltiae SN was more effective than H. indica LN2 against B. odoriphaga at 15 and 20 °C, and the addition of imidacloprid at 1/10 recommended concentration (RC) significantly increased the efficacy of S. feltiae SN. The year-round occurrence of the B. odoriphaga larvae in chive fields treated by EPN and imidacloprid at 1/10 RC was studied. Results showed that the application of EPN with imidacloprid at 1/10 RC successfully suppressed larval populations of B. odoriphaga in chive fields, thus significantly increasing the yield of chive. The practical method of applying EPN–imidacloprid combinations provided a cost-effective and environmental safety strategy for controlling B. odoriphaga larvae in chive production, which can reduce the usage of toxic chemical insecticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bradysia odoriphaga; Heterorhabditis indica; pest management; Steinernema feltiae; synergists Bradysia odoriphaga; Heterorhabditis indica; pest management; Steinernema feltiae; synergists
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Yan, X.; Zhao, G.; Han, R. Integrated Management of Chive Gnats (Bradysia odoriphaga Yang & Zhang) in Chives Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Low-Toxicity Insecticides. Insects 2019, 10, 161.

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