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Volatiles from Different Instars of Honeybee Worker Larvae and Their Food

Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Beijing Blooming Bio-tech Co., Ltd., Beijing 100079, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(4), 118;
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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(E)-β-Ocimene was the only volatile chemical found to be emitted by whole, live worker larvae of Apis mellifera L. when sampling in the vapor phase. In addition to (E)-β-ocimene, there is evidence for the existence of other volatiles, but the changes in their composition and contents remain unknown during larval development, as are their differences from larvae to larval food. We investigated volatile components of worker larvae and larval food using solid phase dynamic extraction (SPDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nine compounds were identified with certainty and six tentatively, including terpenoids, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, an ester and a ketone. The contents of volatiles in the second-instar worker larvae differ greatly from those in larvae of other stages. This is mainly attributable to terpenoids, which resulted in the second-instar worker larvae having significantly higher amounts of overall volatiles. Larval food contained significantly higher amounts of aldehydes and hydrocarbons than the corresponding larvae from the fourth to fifth-instar. We discovered volatiles in worker larvae and their food that were never reported before; we also determined the content changes of these volatiles during larval development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apis mellifera; GC-MS; larva; terpenoids; volatiles Apis mellifera; GC-MS; larva; terpenoids; volatiles

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Zhang, H.; Hou, C.; Dai, P.; Liu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Pang, Y.; Diao, Q. Volatiles from Different Instars of Honeybee Worker Larvae and Their Food. Insects 2019, 10, 118.

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