Landscape and Environmental Factors Influencing Stage Persistence and Abundance of the Bamboo Mosquito, Tripteroides bambusa (Diptera: Culicidae), across an Altitudinal Gradient
Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud (INCIENSA), Apartado Postal 4-2250, Tres Ríos, Cartago, Costa Rica
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD 21046, USA
Division of Immunology, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto 1-12-4, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10020041
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Mosquito Biology: From Molecules to Ecosystems)
The bamboo mosquito, Tripteroides bambusa (Yamada) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a common insect across East Asia. Several studies have looked at the ecology of Tr. bambusa developmental stages separately, but little is known about the factors associated with the persistence (how often) and abundance (how many individuals) of Tr. bambusa stages simultaneously studied across a heterogeneous landscape. Here, we ask what environmental and landscape factors are associated with the persistence and abundance of Tr. bambusa stages across the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki City, Japan. During a season-long study we counted 8065 (7297 4th instar larvae, 670 pupae and 98 adults) Tr. bambusa mosquitoes. We found that persistence and abundance patterns were not associated among stages, with the exception of large (4th instar) and small (1st to 3rd instars) larvae persistence, which were positively correlated. We also found that relative humidity was associated with the persistence of Tr. bambusa aquatic stages, being positively associated with large and small larvae, but negatively with pupae. Similarly, landscape aspect changed from positive to negative the sign of its association with Tr. bambusa pupae and adults, highlighting that environmental associations change with life stage. Meanwhile, Tr. bambusa abundance patterns were negatively impacted by more variable microenvironments, as measured by the negative impacts of kurtosis and standard deviation (SD) of environmental variables, indicating Tr. bambusa thrives in stable environments, suggesting this mosquito species has a finely grained response to environmental changes.