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Insects 2019, 10(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10020039

Analysis of Salivary Glands and Saliva from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti Infected with Chikungunya Viruses

1
Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a medically important mosquito-borne virus transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Stegomyia) species. In 2013–2014, Ae. aegypti transmitted CHIKV to humans in the Caribbean and in 2005–2006, Ae. albopictus transmitted CHIKV on La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean basin). CHIKV LR2006 OPY1 from the La Réunion epidemic was associated with a mutation (E1:A226V) in the viral E1 glycoprotein that enhanced CHIKV transmission by Ae. albopictus. CHIKV R99659 from the Caribbean outbreak did not have the E1:A226V mutation. Here, we analyzed the salivary glands and saliva of Ae. albopictus strains from New Jersey, Florida, Louisiana and La Réunion after infection with each virus to determine their transmission potential. We infected the Ae. albopictus strains with blood meals containing 3–7 × 107 PFU/mL of each virus and analyzed the mosquitoes nine days later to maximize infection of their salivary glands. All four Ae. albopictus strains were highly susceptible to LR2006 OPY1 and R99659 viruses and their CHIKV disseminated infection rates (DIR) were statistically similar (p = 0.3916). The transmission efficiency rate (TER) was significantly lower for R99659 virus compared to LR2006 OPY1 virus in all Ae. albopictus strains and Ae. aegypti (Poza Rica) (p = 0.012) suggesting a salivary gland exit barrier to R99659 virus not seen with LR2006 OPY1 infections. If introduced, LR2006 OPY1 virus poses an increased risk of transmission by both Aedes species in the western hemisphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: chikungunya virus; arbovirus; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; salivary glands; and saliva; salivary gland exit barrier chikungunya virus; arbovirus; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; salivary glands; and saliva; salivary gland exit barrier
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Sanchez-Vargas, I.; Harrington, L.C.; Black, W.C., IV; Olson, K.E. Analysis of Salivary Glands and Saliva from Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti Infected with Chikungunya Viruses. Insects 2019, 10, 39.

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