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Open AccessArticle

Temperature-Mediated Variations in Behavior and Mortality Caused by Non-Repellent Insecticides in Subterranean Termites (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)

1
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5413, USA
2
Department of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 103 Morrison-Mayberry Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10020037
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology of Termites)
Behavioral symptoms and mortality associated with intoxication with insecticides fipronil and indoxacarb were determined in field-collected eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), and Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Behaviors and mortality were evaluated at three temperatures (16, 22, and 28 °C) and three concentrations of fipronil (0.5, 1, and 5 ppm) and indoxacarb (50, 75, and 100 ppm). LT50 (median lethal time to kill 50% of the termites) values declined with increasing concentrations and temperatures for both fipronil-exposed eastern and Formosan subterranean termites, whereas these values were not always the highest at 16 °C for indoxacarb-treated termites. The greatest change (reduction) in LT50 values occurred for both species between 16 and 22 °C at the lowest concentration of each insecticide. Intoxication and moribundity were the most frequently observed behaviors for fipronil-exposed termites, whereas intoxication, ataxia, and moribundity were observed for most concentration and temperature combinations for indoxacarb-exposed termites. The inherent toxicity of fipronil was higher than that of indoxacarb. The higher presence and duration of intoxication behaviors may positively affect the performance of indoxacarb against subterranean termite colonies. View Full-Text
Keywords: eastern subterranean termite; Formosan subterranean termite; temperature-toxicity; sublethal behaviors eastern subterranean termite; Formosan subterranean termite; temperature-toxicity; sublethal behaviors
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Quarcoo, F.Y.; Hu, X.P.; Appel, A.G. Temperature-Mediated Variations in Behavior and Mortality Caused by Non-Repellent Insecticides in Subterranean Termites (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae). Insects 2019, 10, 37.

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