The frequency and amplitude of heat waves are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. We still lack a detailed understanding of how changes in the frequency and amplitude of heat waves are linked to the life history traits and biocontrol efficiency of host-feeding parasitoids. In the present study, we simulated a series of heat waves as a function of amplitude and frequency to investigate the effects on the life history traits of the host-feeding parasitoid Eretmocerus hayati. We found that both the amplitude and frequency of heat waves significantly affected the adult phenotypes. In the low-amplitude heat wave group, the frequency of heat waves did not change the life history traits of the parasitoid; however, when the heat amplitude reached 42 °C, medium (four times/week) and high frequencies (seven times/week) of heat waves detrimentally affected these parameters. Hence, these findings suggest that to obtain optimal biological control with this parasitoid, we need to carefully monitor heat wave pattern (especially the amplitude and frequency) over the short term (usually 7–10 days) before releasing a host-feeding parasitoid.
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