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Open AccessArticle

Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activities of Malagasy Medicinal Plant (Cinnamosma sp.) Extracts and Drimane-Type Sesquiterpenes against Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

1
Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2
Departments of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3
Center for Applied Plant Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4
Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences-Bugando, Mwanza P.O. Box 1464, Tanzania
5
Division of Livestock and Human Disease Vector Control, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha P.O. Box 3024, Tanzania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(11), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10110373
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vectors and Vector-borne Diseases)
The overuse of insecticides with limited modes of action has led to resistance in mosquito vectors. Thus, insecticides with novel modes of action are needed. Secondary metabolites in Madagascan plants of the genus Cinnamosma (Canellaceae) are commonly used in traditional remedies and known to elicit antifeedant and toxic effects in insect pests. Here we test the hypothesis that extracts of Cinnamosma sp. enriched in drimane sesquiterpenes are toxic and/or antifeedant to the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that the bark and root extracts, which contain a higher abundance of drimane sesquiterpenes compared to leaves, were the most efficacious. Screening isolated compounds revealed cinnamodial to be the primary driver of adulticidal activity, whereas cinnamodial, polygodial, cinnafragrin A, and capsicodendrin contributed to the larvicidal activity. Moreover, an abundant lactone (cinnamosmolide) in the root extract synergized the larvicidal effects of cinnamodial. The antifeedant activity of the extracts was primarily contributed to cinnamodial, polygodial, and cinnamolide. Parallel experiments with warburganal isolated from Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) revealed that aldehydes are critical for—and a hydroxyl modulates—insecticidal activity. Our results indicate that plant drimane sesquiterpenes provide valuable chemical platforms for developing insecticides and repellents to control mosquito vectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Cinnamosma; Warburgia; insecticide; antifeedant Aedes aegypti; Cinnamosma; Warburgia; insecticide; antifeedant
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Inocente, E.A.; Nguyen, B.; Manwill, P.K.; Benatrehina, A.; Kweka, E.; Wu, S.; Cheng, X.; Rakotondraibe, L.H.; Piermarini, P.M. Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activities of Malagasy Medicinal Plant (Cinnamosma sp.) Extracts and Drimane-Type Sesquiterpenes against Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes. Insects 2019, 10, 373.

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