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Open AccessArticle

Use of Flowering Plants to Enhance Parasitism and Predation Rates on Two Squash Bug Species Anasa tristis and Anasa armigera (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

1
Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Lab, ARS-USDA, Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Bldg. 007, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
2
Statistics Group, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northeast Area Office, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
3
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS-USDA, c/o National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 10th & Constitution Ave. NW, MRC 168, Washington, DC 20560, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(10), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10100318
Received: 23 August 2019 / Revised: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Small Farms and Gardens Pest Management)
A two-year study evaluated the effect of a flowering border of buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Moench on rates of egg parasitism, egg predation and adult parasitism on two squash bug species, Anasa tristis (DeGeer) and Anasa armigera Say, by comparing rates in squash fields with and without a flowering border. Furthermore, we evaluated whether there was an edge effect by comparing parasitism and predation rates in plots located in the corner of a squash field with plots located in the center of a squash field for fields with and without a flowering border. The egg parasitism rates were not affected by either treatment (flowering border or control) or plot location (edge or center). Anasa armigera egg masses only accounted for 4.3% of the total egg masses collected. The egg parasitism rates increased gradually throughout the season, peaking in the last week of August in 2017 at 45% for A. tristis egg masses. The most common egg parasitoid recovered was Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) followed by Ooencyrtus anasae (Ashmead). Adult parasitism was not affected by treatment, but A. tristis adult parasitism rates were higher in plots located on the edge of squash fields compared with plots located in the center of squash fields in 2016. Since adult parasitoid, Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) flies were observed visiting buckwheat flowers, future studies could explore the possibility that the flowering buckwheat may have a more impact on adult parasitism if there was a greater distance between fields with and without a flowering border. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gryon pennsylvanicum; Ooencyrtus anasae; Trichopoda pennipes; biological control; floral resources; cucurbit pests; natural enemies Gryon pennsylvanicum; Ooencyrtus anasae; Trichopoda pennipes; biological control; floral resources; cucurbit pests; natural enemies
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Cornelius, M.L.; Vinyard, B.T.; Gates, M.W. Use of Flowering Plants to Enhance Parasitism and Predation Rates on Two Squash Bug Species Anasa tristis and Anasa armigera (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Insects 2019, 10, 318.

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