Next Article in Journal
Hot Coronae in Local AGN: Present Status and Future Perspectives
Previous Article in Journal
Future X-ray Polarimetry of Relativistic Accelerators: Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Supernova Remnants
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Galaxies 2018, 6(2), 43;

Applying MOG to Lensing: Einstein Rings, Abell 520 and the Bullet Cluster

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5, Canada
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161 Tehran, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [395 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


We investigate gravitational lensing in the context of the MOG modified theory of gravity. Using a formulation of the theory with no adjustable or fitted parameters, we present the MOG equations of motion for slow, nonrelativistic test particles and for ultrarelativistic test particles, such as rays of light. We demonstrate how the MOG prediction for the bending of light can be applied to astronomical observations. Our investigation first focuses on a small set of strong lensing observations where the properties of the lensing objects are found to be consistent with the predictions of the theory. We also present an analysis of the colliding clusters 1E0657-558 (known also as the Bullet Cluster) and Abell 520; in both cases, the predictions of the MOG theory are in good agreement with observation. View Full-Text
Keywords: modified gravity; MOG; gravitational lensing; Abell 520; Bullet Cluster modified gravity; MOG; gravitational lensing; Abell 520; Bullet Cluster

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Moffat, J.W.; Rahvar, S.; Toth, V.T. Applying MOG to Lensing: Einstein Rings, Abell 520 and the Bullet Cluster. Galaxies 2018, 6, 43.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Galaxies EISSN 2075-4434 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top