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Unveiling the Origin of the Fermi Bubbles

Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Departments of Astronomy & Physics, University of Wisonsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Galaxies 2018, 6(1), 29;
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
PDF [713 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]


The Fermi bubbles, two giant structures above and below the Galactic center (GC), are among the most important discoveries of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Studying their physical origin has been providing valuable insights into cosmic-ray transport, the Galactic magnetic field, and past activity at the GC in the Milky Way galaxy. Despite their importance, the formation mechanism of the bubbles is still elusive. Over the past few years, there have been numerous efforts, both observational and theoretical, to uncover the nature of the bubbles. In this article, we present an overview of the current status of our understanding of the bubbles’ origin, and discuss possible future directions that will help to distinguish different scenarios of bubble formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: gamma rays; galaxy; cosmic rays gamma rays; galaxy; cosmic rays
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, H.-Y.K.; Ruszkowski, M.; Zweibel, E.G. Unveiling the Origin of the Fermi Bubbles. Galaxies 2018, 6, 29.

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