Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Ongoing Growth of the M87 Halo through Accretion Events
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Back to the Green Valley: How to Rejuvenate an S0 Galaxy through Minor Mergers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Creating S0s with Major Mergers: A 3D View

Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117, Germany
Departamento de Astrofísica y Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040, Spain
Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada BC-22800, Mexico
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/ Vía Láctea, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife, Spain
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, Groningen NL-9700, The Netherlands
School of Physics and Astronomy, University St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Alfonso López Aguerri, Enrichetta Iodice and Alexei Moiseev
Galaxies 2015, 3(4), 202-211;
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
PDF [3731 KB, uploaded 3 December 2015]


A number of simulators have argued that major mergers can sometimes preserve discs, but the possibility that they could explain the emergence of lenticular galaxies (S0s) has been generally neglected. In fact, observations of S0s reveal a strong structural coupling between their bulges and discs, which seems difficult to reconcile with the idea that they come from major mergers. However, in our recent papers we have used N-body simulations of binary mergers to show that, under favourable conditions, discs are first destroyed but soon regrow out of the leftover debris, matching observational photometric scaling relations. Additionally, we have shown how the merger scenario agrees with the recent discovery that S0s and most spirals are not compatible in an angular momentum–concentration plane. This important result from CALIFA constitutes a serious objection to the idea that spirals transform into S0s mainly by fading (e.g., via ram-pressure stripping, as that would not explain the observed simultaneous change in λ Re and concentration), but our simulations of major mergers do explain that mismatch. From such a 3D comparison we conclude that mergers must be a relevant process in the build-up of the current population of S0s. View Full-Text
Keywords: galaxies; lenticular; kinematics and dynamics; structure; evolution; interactions galaxies; lenticular; kinematics and dynamics; structure; evolution; interactions

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Querejeta, M.; Eliche-Moral, M.C.; Tapia, T.; Borlaff, A.; Van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Martig, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J. Creating S0s with Major Mergers: A 3D View. Galaxies 2015, 3, 202-211.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Galaxies EISSN 2075-4434 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top