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Open AccessReview

Pharmacogenomic Testing: Clinical Evidence and Implementation Challenges

by Catriona Hippman 1,2,* and Corey Nislow 3,*
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1, Canada
BC Mental Health and Addictions Research Institute, 3rd Floor-938 West 28th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6619-2405 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9(3), 40;
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
Pharmacogenomics can enhance patient care by enabling treatments tailored to genetic make-up and lowering risk of serious adverse events. As of June 2019, there are 132 pharmacogenomic dosing guidelines for 99 drugs and pharmacogenomic information is included in 309 medication labels. Recently, the technology for identifying individual-specific genetic variants (genotyping) has become more accessible. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a cost-effective option for genotyping patients at many pharmacogenomic loci simultaneously, and guidelines for implementation of these data are available from organizations such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG). NGS and related technologies are increasing knowledge in the research sphere, yet rates of genomic literacy remain low, resulting in a widening gap in knowledge translation to the patient. Multidisciplinary teams—including physicians, nurses, genetic counsellors, and pharmacists—will need to combine their expertise to deliver optimal pharmacogenomically-informed care. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacogenomics; clinical guidelines; implementation; drugs; medications; review pharmacogenomics; clinical guidelines; implementation; drugs; medications; review
MDPI and ACS Style

Hippman, C.; Nislow, C. Pharmacogenomic Testing: Clinical Evidence and Implementation Challenges. J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9, 40.

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