The aim of the study was to determine gender-specific risk factor sets which could influence optical coherence tomography (OCT) results in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Material and Methods: 175 children with T1D without symptoms of diabetic retinopathy were enrolled, but 330 eyes were used for the final analysis (168 children, mean age 12.81 ± 3.63 years, diabetes duration 4.59 ± 3.71 years). The multivariate regression models for retinal thickness (foveal FT, and parafoveal PFT) and vascular densities (superficial and deep) were carried out separately for both genders using all metabolic and demographic parameters. Results: In the statistically significant multiple regression models for all analyzed OCT parameters for both genders, pH at the onset of diabetes were in existence, as well as for retinal thickness current HbA1c. Duration of continuous insulin infusion (CSII) was an important factor in all parameters, except PFT. For the girls, the most significant factors were daily insulin dose, uric acid, and triglycerides, but for the boys, it was serum creatinine, systolic pressure, and free thyroxine level. Conclusions: We detected significant risk factors set for development of OCT parameters changes, and they were not identical for both genders. Current metabolic control, diabetic ketoacidosis at the disease onset, serum creatinine and longer use of CSII are the most important factors for retinal thickness and vessel densities in both genders in children with type 1 diabetes. For the girls, elements of metabolic syndrome (uric acid and triglycerides) and parameters of insulin amount were more pronounced.
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