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Article

Gender-Specific Risk Factors for the Development of Retinal Changes in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

1
Clinic of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Medicine, Lazarski University, 02-662 Warsaw, Poland
3
Ophthalmology Department, South TEES Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust the James Cook University Hospital, Marton Road, Middlesbrough S4 3BW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Carmelo Adsuar Sala
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(6), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060588
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 29 May 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
The aim of the study was to determine gender-specific risk factor sets which could influence optical coherence tomography (OCT) results in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Material and Methods: 175 children with T1D without symptoms of diabetic retinopathy were enrolled, but 330 eyes were used for the final analysis (168 children, mean age 12.81 ± 3.63 years, diabetes duration 4.59 ± 3.71 years). The multivariate regression models for retinal thickness (foveal FT, and parafoveal PFT) and vascular densities (superficial and deep) were carried out separately for both genders using all metabolic and demographic parameters. Results: In the statistically significant multiple regression models for all analyzed OCT parameters for both genders, pH at the onset of diabetes were in existence, as well as for retinal thickness current HbA1c. Duration of continuous insulin infusion (CSII) was an important factor in all parameters, except PFT. For the girls, the most significant factors were daily insulin dose, uric acid, and triglycerides, but for the boys, it was serum creatinine, systolic pressure, and free thyroxine level. Conclusions: We detected significant risk factors set for development of OCT parameters changes, and they were not identical for both genders. Current metabolic control, diabetic ketoacidosis at the disease onset, serum creatinine and longer use of CSII are the most important factors for retinal thickness and vessel densities in both genders in children with type 1 diabetes. For the girls, elements of metabolic syndrome (uric acid and triglycerides) and parameters of insulin amount were more pronounced. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 1 diabetes; children; diabetic retinopathy; diabetes complications; risk factors type 1 diabetes; children; diabetic retinopathy; diabetes complications; risk factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wysocka-Mincewicz, M.; Gołębiewska, J.; Baszyńska-Wilk, M.; Olechowski, A. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for the Development of Retinal Changes in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060588

AMA Style

Wysocka-Mincewicz M, Gołębiewska J, Baszyńska-Wilk M, Olechowski A. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for the Development of Retinal Changes in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(6):588. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060588

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wysocka-Mincewicz, Marta, Joanna Gołębiewska, Marta Baszyńska-Wilk, and Andrzej Olechowski. 2021. "Gender-Specific Risk Factors for the Development of Retinal Changes in Children with Type 1 Diabetes" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 6: 588. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060588

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