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Article

Salivary Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients: Towards a Wide-Scale Test for Monitoring Disease Activity

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Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, UOC Gastroenterologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze di Laboratorio e Infettivologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Invecchiamento, Neurologiche, Ortopediche e della Testa e del Collo, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia Traslazionale, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Sicurezza e Bioetica, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Fisica, Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors equally contributed to this article.
These senior authors equally contributed to this article.
Academic Editor: Klaus Bønnelykke
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(5), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11050385
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 4 May 2021 / Published: 8 May 2021
The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which impairs the functionality of several organs, represents a major threat to human health. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients’ access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for the fast and non-invasive collection of specimens and can be repeated multiple times. Methods: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free light chains (kFLC and λFLC) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. Results: We found that each biomarker differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10−8 to 10−4. A Receiving Operator Curve analysis shows that λFLC level is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups (AUC = 0.96), with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87–1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81–1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96–1.00 95% CI), and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70–1.00 95% CI). Conclusion: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This hypothesis is strengthened by the consideration that the λFLC half-life (approximately 6 h) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days), thus confirming the potential of λFLC for effectively monitoring patients’ fluctuation in real-time. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; IgA; FLC; salivary biomarkers COVID-19; IgA; FLC; salivary biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Napodano, C.; Callà, C.; Fiorita, A.; Marino, M.; Taddei, E.; Di Cesare, T.; Passali, G.C.; Di Santo, R.; Stefanile, A.; Fantoni, M.; Urbani, A.; Paludetti, G.; Rapaccini, G.L.; Ciasca, G.; Basile, U. Salivary Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients: Towards a Wide-Scale Test for Monitoring Disease Activity. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11050385

AMA Style

Napodano C, Callà C, Fiorita A, Marino M, Taddei E, Di Cesare T, Passali GC, Di Santo R, Stefanile A, Fantoni M, Urbani A, Paludetti G, Rapaccini GL, Ciasca G, Basile U. Salivary Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients: Towards a Wide-Scale Test for Monitoring Disease Activity. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(5):385. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11050385

Chicago/Turabian Style

Napodano, Cecilia, Cinzia Callà, Antonella Fiorita, Mariapaola Marino, Eleonora Taddei, Tiziana Di Cesare, Giulio C. Passali, Riccardo Di Santo, Annunziata Stefanile, Massimo Fantoni, Andrea Urbani, Gaetano Paludetti, Gian L. Rapaccini, Gabriele Ciasca, and Umberto Basile. 2021. "Salivary Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients: Towards a Wide-Scale Test for Monitoring Disease Activity" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 5: 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11050385

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