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Systematic Review

Differentiating Neuroblastoma: A Systematic Review of the Retinoic Acid, Its Derivatives, and Synergistic Interactions

by 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2,3,*
1
Cancer Bio-Engineering Group, Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, D02 YN77 Dublin, Ireland
2
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, D02 YN77 Dublin, Ireland
3
National Children’s Research Centre, Our Lady’s Children’s Hospital Crumlin, D12 8MGH Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Walter Kolch
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030211
Received: 9 February 2021 / Revised: 11 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine for Neuroblastoma)
A neuroblastoma (NB) is a solid paediatric tumour arising from undifferentiated neuronal cells. Despite the recent advances in disease management and treatment, it remains one of the leading causes of childhood cancer deaths, thereby necessitating the development of new therapeutic agents and regimens. Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A derivative, is a promising agent that can induce differentiation in NB cells. Its isoform, 13-cis RA or isotretinoin, is used in NB therapy; however, its effectiveness is limited to treating a minimal residual disease as maintenance therapy. As such, research focuses on RA derivatives that might increase the anti-NB action or explores the potential synergy between RA and other classes of drugs, such as cellular processes mediators, epigenetic modifiers, and immune modulators. This review summarises the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data of RA, its derivatives, and synergising compounds, thereby establishing the most promising RA derivatives and combinations of RA for further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroblastoma; retinoic acid; combinational therapy neuroblastoma; retinoic acid; combinational therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bayeva, N.; Coll, E.; Piskareva, O. Differentiating Neuroblastoma: A Systematic Review of the Retinoic Acid, Its Derivatives, and Synergistic Interactions. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030211

AMA Style

Bayeva N, Coll E, Piskareva O. Differentiating Neuroblastoma: A Systematic Review of the Retinoic Acid, Its Derivatives, and Synergistic Interactions. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(3):211. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030211

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bayeva, Nadiya, Erin Coll, and Olga Piskareva. 2021. "Differentiating Neuroblastoma: A Systematic Review of the Retinoic Acid, Its Derivatives, and Synergistic Interactions" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 3: 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030211

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