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Article

Pharmacogenomics at the Point of Care: A Community Pharmacy Project in British Columbia

1
Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
2
British Columbia Pharmacy Association, 430-1200 W. 73rd Avenue, Vancouver, BC V6P 6G5, Canada
3
Sequencing and Bioinformatics Consortium, Office of the Vice-President, Research & Innovation (VPRI), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010011
Received: 9 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 24 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacogenomics: From Basic Research to Clinical Implementation)
In this study 180 patients were consented and enrolled for pharmacogenomic testing based on current antidepressant/antipsychotic usage. Samples from patients were genotyped by PCR, MassArray, and targeted next generation sequencing. We also conducted a quantitative, frequency-based analysis of participants’ perceptions using simple surveys. Pharmacogenomic information, including medication changes and altered dosing recommendations were returned to the pharmacists and used to direct patient therapy. Overwhelmingly, patients perceived pharmacists/pharmacies as an appropriate healthcare provider to deliver pharmacogenomic services. In total, 81 medication changes in 33 unique patients, representing 22% of all genotyped participants were recorded. We performed a simple drug cost analysis and found that medication adjustments and dosing changes across the entire cohort added $24.15CAD per patient per year for those that required an adjustment. Comparing different platforms, we uncovered a small number, 1.7%, of genotype discrepancies. We conclude that: (1). Pharmacists are competent providers of pharmacogenomic services. (2). The potential reduction in adverse drug responses and optimization of drug selection and dosing comes at a minimal cost to the health care system. (3). Changes in drug therapy, based on PGx tests, result in inconsequential changes in annual drug therapy cost with small cost increases just as likely as costs savings. (4). Pharmacogenomic services offered by pharmacists are ready for wide commercial implementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: community pharmacy; pharmacogenomic testing; pharmacogenetics; genetic privacy; pharmaco-economics community pharmacy; pharmacogenomic testing; pharmacogenetics; genetic privacy; pharmaco-economics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Breaux, S.; Desrosiers, F.A.D.; Neira, M.; Sinha, S.; Nislow, C. Pharmacogenomics at the Point of Care: A Community Pharmacy Project in British Columbia. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010011

AMA Style

Breaux S, Desrosiers FAD, Neira M, Sinha S, Nislow C. Pharmacogenomics at the Point of Care: A Community Pharmacy Project in British Columbia. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(1):11. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Breaux, Samantha, Francis A.D. Desrosiers, Mauricio Neira, Sunita Sinha, and Corey Nislow. 2021. "Pharmacogenomics at the Point of Care: A Community Pharmacy Project in British Columbia" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 1: 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010011

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