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Article

Practical Barriers and Facilitators Experienced by Patients, Pharmacists and Physicians to the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Screening in Dutch Outpatient Hospital Care—An Explorative Pilot Study

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Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
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Unit of PharmacoTherapy, Epidemiology & Economics, Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Health Psychology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10(4), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040293
Received: 18 November 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 18 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacogenomics: From Basic Research to Clinical Implementation)
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) can provide optimized treatment to individual patients while potentially reducing healthcare costs. However, widespread implementation remains absent. We performed a pilot study of PGx screening in Dutch outpatient hospital care to identify the barriers and facilitators to implementation experienced by patients (n = 165), pharmacists (n = 58) and physicians (n = 21). Our results indeed suggest that the current practical experience of healthcare practitioners with PGx is limited, that proper education is necessary, that patients want to know the exact implications of the results, that healthcare practitioners heavily rely on their computer systems, that healthcare practitioners encounter practical problems in the systems used, and a new barrier was identified, namely that there is an unclear allocation of responsibilities between healthcare practitioners about who should discuss PGx with patients and apply PGx results in healthcare. We observed a positive attitude toward PGx among all the stakeholders in our study, and among patients, this was independent of the occurrence of drug-gene interactions during their treatment. Facilitators included the availability of and adherence to Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group guidelines. While clinical decision support (CDS) is available and valued in our medical center, the lack of availability of CDS may be an important barrier within Dutch healthcare in general. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics; implementation; screening; pre-emptive; personalized medicine; precision medicine pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenomics; implementation; screening; pre-emptive; personalized medicine; precision medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lanting, P.; Drenth, E.; Boven, L.; van Hoek, A.; Hijlkema, A.; Poot, E.; van der Vries, G.; Schoevers, R.; Horwitz, E.; Gans, R.; Kosterink, J.; Plantinga, M.; van Langen, I.; Ranchor, A.; Wijmenga, C.; Franke, L.; Wilffert, B.; Sijmons, R. Practical Barriers and Facilitators Experienced by Patients, Pharmacists and Physicians to the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Screening in Dutch Outpatient Hospital Care—An Explorative Pilot Study. J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10, 293. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040293

AMA Style

Lanting P, Drenth E, Boven L, van Hoek A, Hijlkema A, Poot E, van der Vries G, Schoevers R, Horwitz E, Gans R, Kosterink J, Plantinga M, van Langen I, Ranchor A, Wijmenga C, Franke L, Wilffert B, Sijmons R. Practical Barriers and Facilitators Experienced by Patients, Pharmacists and Physicians to the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Screening in Dutch Outpatient Hospital Care—An Explorative Pilot Study. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2020; 10(4):293. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040293

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lanting, Pauline, Evelien Drenth, Ludolf Boven, Amanda van Hoek, Annemiek Hijlkema, Ellen Poot, Gerben van der Vries, Robert Schoevers, Ernst Horwitz, Reinold Gans, Jos Kosterink, Mirjam Plantinga, Irene van Langen, Adelita Ranchor, Cisca Wijmenga, Lude Franke, Bob Wilffert, and Rolf Sijmons. 2020. "Practical Barriers and Facilitators Experienced by Patients, Pharmacists and Physicians to the Implementation of Pharmacogenomic Screening in Dutch Outpatient Hospital Care—An Explorative Pilot Study" Journal of Personalized Medicine 10, no. 4: 293. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040293

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