Personalised treatment in oncology has seen great developments over the last decade, due to both technological advances and more in-depth knowledge of radiobiological processes occurring in tumours. Lung cancer therapy is no exception, as new molecular targets have been identified to further increase treatment specificity and sensitivity. Yet, tumour resistance to treatment is still one of the main reasons for treatment failure. This is due to a number of factors, among which tumour proliferation, the presence of cancer stem cells and the metastatic potential of the primary tumour are key features that require better controlling to further improve cancer management in general, and lung cancer treatment in particular. Imaging biomarkers play a key role in the identification of biological particularities within tumours and therefore are an important component of treatment personalisation in radiotherapy. Imaging techniques such as PET, SPECT, MRI that employ tumour-specific biomarkers already play a critical role in patient stratification towards individualized treatment. The aim of the current paper is to describe the radiobiological challenges of lung cancer treatment in relation to the latest imaging biomarkers that can aid in the identification of hostile cellular features for further treatment adaptation and tailoring to the individual patient’s needs.
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