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Open AccessArticle

Enhanced Systemic Response of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Regulators in Campylobacter and Salmonella Patients

1
Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 38, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Stenbäckinkatu 9, PO Box 100, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden
4
Department of Dental Medicine, Division of Periodontology, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2018, 8(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8040082
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis of Bacterial Pathogens)
Campylobacters are major enteropathogens worldwide with a substantial financial burden. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic metalloendopeptidases with ability to modify immune response and shown to be upregulated in patients with several tissue destructive diseases, including infections. We measured here serum concentrations of MMP-8 and MMP-9 together with their regulators myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 in 80 Campylobacter and 25 Salmonella patients as well as in 27 healthy controls. Paired serum samples were available for 73 and 23 patients, respectively. When the initial serum samples were compared to those from controls, both Campylobacter and Salmonella patients showed elevated concentrations of all biomarkers tested (p ≤ 0.037). In the follow-up samples, collected about 25 days afterwards, MMP-8 levels of Campylobacter patients had already turned to normal but all the other biomarkers still showed elevated, although from the initial levels significantly dropped, levels. For the follow-up samples of Salmonella patients, only MMP-9 and MPO levels were at a significantly higher level than in controls. It remains to be studied if the systematically enhanced neutrophil-derived proteolytic and oxidative stress, induced by Campylobacter infection as shown here and persisting for several weeks, is important for the development of late sequelae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Campylobacter; Salmonella; enteritis; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1; myeloperoxidase; human neutrophil elastase Campylobacter; Salmonella; enteritis; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1; myeloperoxidase; human neutrophil elastase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nilsson, A.; Tervahartiala, T.; Lennebratt, D.; Lannergård, A.; Sorsa, T.; Rautelin, H. Enhanced Systemic Response of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Regulators in Campylobacter and Salmonella Patients. Diagnostics 2018, 8, 82.

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