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Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 12;

Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
Department of Women’s Health, Graduate School of Human Nursing, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassakacho, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533, Japan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edward J. Pavlik
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ovarian Cancer Screening)
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Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: subtypes; two types of ovarian cancer; ovarian cancer screening; CA125; transvaginal sonography subtypes; two types of ovarian cancer; ovarian cancer screening; CA125; transvaginal sonography
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Koshiyama, M.; Matsumura, N.; Konishi, I. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 12.

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