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Article

Individual- and Facility-Level Factors Associated with Facility Testing among Men in Malawi: Findings from a Representative Community Survey

1
Partners in Hope, Lilongwe, Malawi
2
Department of Global Health, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA
3
Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
4
Clinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, MA 02127, USA
5
Department of HIV/AIDS, Malawian Ministry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi
6
Division of Infectious Disease, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adithya Cattamanchi
Diagnostics 2021, 11(6), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060950
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care)
(1) Background: Men frequent outpatient departments (OPD) but are underrepresented in HIV testing services throughout sub-Saharan Africa. (2) Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a community-based survey with men in rural Malawi to assess factors associated with HIV testing, and being offered testing, during men’s OPD visits. We include OPD visits made by men in-need of testing as our unit of observation. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were conducted. (3) Results: 782 men were eligible for these analyses, with 1575 OPD visits included (median two visits per man; IQR 1–3). 17% of OPD visits resulted in HIV testing. Being offered testing (aOR 42.45; 95% CI 15.13–119.10) and satisfaction with services received (aOR 3.27; 95% CI 1.28–8.33) were significantly associated with HIV testing. 14% of OPD visits resulted in being offered HIV testing. Being married/steady relationship (aOR 2.53; 95% CI 1.08–5.91) and having a sexual partner living with HIV (aOR 8.22; 95% CI 1.67–40.49) were significantly associated with being offered testing. (4) Conclusion: Being offered HIV testing was the strongest factor associated with testing uptake, while HIV status of sexual partner had the strongest association with being offered testing. Implementation of provider-initiated-testing should be prioritized for male OPD visits. View Full-Text
Keywords: men; HIV testing; PITC; facility visits; OPDs; sub-Saharan Africa; Malawi men; HIV testing; PITC; facility visits; OPDs; sub-Saharan Africa; Malawi
MDPI and ACS Style

Balakasi, K.; Nichols, B.E.; Mphande, M.; Stillson, C.; Khan, S.; Kalande, P.; Robson, I.; Sanena, M.; Ng’ona, K.; van Oosterhout, J.J.; Doi, N.; Dovel, K. Individual- and Facility-Level Factors Associated with Facility Testing among Men in Malawi: Findings from a Representative Community Survey. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 950. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060950

AMA Style

Balakasi K, Nichols BE, Mphande M, Stillson C, Khan S, Kalande P, Robson I, Sanena M, Ng’ona K, van Oosterhout JJ, Doi N, Dovel K. Individual- and Facility-Level Factors Associated with Facility Testing among Men in Malawi: Findings from a Representative Community Survey. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(6):950. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060950

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balakasi, Kelvin, Brooke E. Nichols, Misheck Mphande, Christian Stillson, Shaukat Khan, Pericles Kalande, Isabella Robson, Maria Sanena, Khumbo Ng’ona, Joep J. van Oosterhout, Naoko Doi, and Kathryn Dovel. 2021. "Individual- and Facility-Level Factors Associated with Facility Testing among Men in Malawi: Findings from a Representative Community Survey" Diagnostics 11, no. 6: 950. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060950

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