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Article

Design and Testing of Augmented Reality-Based Fluorescence Imaging Goggle for Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Surgery

1
Institute of Global Health Technology, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
3
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 08308, Korea
4
Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
5
Department of Interdisciplinary Bio/Micro System Technology, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
6
Department of Bioengineering, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
7
Interdisciplinary Program in Precision Public Health, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Elina A. Genina
Diagnostics 2021, 11(6), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060927
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Optical Imaging)
The different pathways between the position of a near-infrared camera and the user’s eye limit the use of existing near-infrared fluorescence imaging systems for tumor margin assessments. By utilizing an optical system that precisely matches the near-infrared fluorescence image and the optical path of visible light, we developed an augmented reality (AR)-based fluorescence imaging system that provides users with a fluorescence image that matches the real-field, without requiring any additional algorithms. Commercial smart glasses, dichroic beam splitters, mirrors, and custom near-infrared cameras were employed to develop the proposed system, and each mount was designed and utilized. After its performance was assessed in the laboratory, preclinical experiments involving tumor detection and lung lobectomy in mice and rabbits by using indocyanine green (ICG) were conducted. The results showed that the proposed system provided a stable image of fluorescence that matched the actual site. In addition, preclinical experiments confirmed that the proposed system could be used to detect tumors using ICG and evaluate lung lobectomies. The AR-based intraoperative smart goggle system could detect fluorescence images for tumor margin assessments in animal models, without disrupting the surgical workflow in an operating room. Additionally, it was confirmed that, even when the system itself was distorted when worn, the fluorescence image consistently matched the actual site. View Full-Text
Keywords: augmented reality; fluorescence image; neuro-navigation; smart goggle augmented reality; fluorescence image; neuro-navigation; smart goggle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.H.; Quan, Y.H.; Kim, M.S.; Kwon, K.H.; Choi, B.H.; Kim, H.K.; Kim, B.-M. Design and Testing of Augmented Reality-Based Fluorescence Imaging Goggle for Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Surgery. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 927. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060927

AMA Style

Lee SH, Quan YH, Kim MS, Kwon KH, Choi BH, Kim HK, Kim B-M. Design and Testing of Augmented Reality-Based Fluorescence Imaging Goggle for Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Surgery. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(6):927. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060927

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Seung H., Yu H. Quan, Min S. Kim, Ki H. Kwon, Byeong H. Choi, Hyun K. Kim, and Beop-Min Kim. 2021. "Design and Testing of Augmented Reality-Based Fluorescence Imaging Goggle for Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Surgery" Diagnostics 11, no. 6: 927. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060927

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