Next Article in Journal
Nuclear Imaging for Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer: The Emergence of Modern Techniques Using Novel Radiotracers
Next Article in Special Issue
Pre-Planned and Non-Planned Agility in Patients Ongoing Rehabilitation after Knee Surgery: Design, Reliability and Validity of the Newly Developed Testing Protocols
Previous Article in Journal
COVID-19 Point-of-Care Diagnostics That Satisfy Global Target Product Profiles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Brain and Muscle: How Central Nervous System Disorders Can Modify the Skeletal Muscle
Review

A Pound of Flesh: What Cachexia Is and What It Is Not

1
Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven Campus Kulak, 8500 Kortrijk, Belgium
2
Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, REVAL, Hasselt University (UHasselt), 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
3
DAHFMO Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
4
Biological Adaptation and Ageing, CNRS UMR 8256, Inserm U1164, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, Sorbonne Université, 75006 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010116
Received: 5 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Diagnostics and Managements)
Body weight loss, mostly due to the wasting of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, is the hallmark of the so-called cachexia syndrome. Cachexia is associated with several acute and chronic disease states such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart and kidney failure, and acquired and autoimmune diseases and also pharmacological treatments such as chemotherapy. The clinical relevance of cachexia and its impact on patients’ quality of life has been neglected for decades. Only recently did the international community agree upon a definition of the term cachexia, and we are still awaiting the standardization of markers and tests for the diagnosis and staging of cancer-related cachexia. In this review, we discuss cachexia, considering the evolving use of the term for diagnostic purposes and the implications it has for clinical biomarkers, to provide a comprehensive overview of its biology and clinical management. Advances and tools developed so far for the in vitro testing of cachexia and drug screening will be described. We will also evaluate the nomenclature of different forms of muscle wasting and degeneration and discuss features that distinguish cachexia from other forms of muscle wasting in the context of different conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cachexia syndrome; diagnosis; biomarkers; muscle wasting; 3D skeletal muscle models; chronic degenerative diseases cachexia syndrome; diagnosis; biomarkers; muscle wasting; 3D skeletal muscle models; chronic degenerative diseases
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Berardi, E.; Madaro, L.; Lozanoska-Ochser, B.; Adamo, S.; Thorrez, L.; Bouche, M.; Coletti, D. A Pound of Flesh: What Cachexia Is and What It Is Not. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010116

AMA Style

Berardi E, Madaro L, Lozanoska-Ochser B, Adamo S, Thorrez L, Bouche M, Coletti D. A Pound of Flesh: What Cachexia Is and What It Is Not. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(1):116. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Berardi, Emanuele, Luca Madaro, Biliana Lozanoska-Ochser, Sergio Adamo, Lieven Thorrez, Marina Bouche, and Dario Coletti. 2021. "A Pound of Flesh: What Cachexia Is and What It Is Not" Diagnostics 11, no. 1: 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010116

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop