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Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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Division of Hepatology and Pancreatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan
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Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
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Department of Gastroenterology, Japanese Redcross Kyoto daiichi Hospital, Kyoto 605-0981, Japan
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Department of Gastroenterology, Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Fukuchiyama, Kyoto 620-8505, Japan
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Department of Gastroenterology, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Ogaki, Gifu 503-8502, Japan
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Department of Gastroenterology, Gifu Municipal Hospital, Gifu 500-8513, Japan
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Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yohokama, Kanagawa 236-0004, Japan
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Department of Hepatology, Himeji Redcross Hospital, Himeji, Hyogo 670-8540, Japan
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Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume 830-0011, Japan
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Loco Medical General Institute, 1178-1 Kanada Mikatsuki Ogi, Saga 849-8501, Japan
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Liver Center, Saga Medical Hospital, Saga, Saga 849-8501, Japan
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Hepatology Center, Saiseikai Suita Hospital, Suita, Osaka 564-0013, Japan
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Japan Strategic Medical Administration Research Center (J-SMARC), Nagoya, Aichi 460-0011, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(8), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080579
Received: 12 July 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Liver Disease: Diagnostic, Predictive and Prognostic Markers)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver-related mortality, and liver transplantation. There is sufficient epidemiological cohort data to recommend the surveillance of patients with NAFLD based upon the incidence of HCC. The American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) expert review published in 2020 recommends that NAFLD patients with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis estimated by non-invasive tests (NITs) consider HCC surveillance. NITs include the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test, FibroScan, and MR elastography. The recommended surveillance modality is abdominal ultrasound (US), which is cost effective and noninvasive with good sensitivity. However, US is limited in obese patients and those with NAFLD. In NAFLD patients with a high likelihood of having an inadequate US, or if an US is attempted but inadequate, CT or MRI may be utilized. The GALAD score, consisting of age, gender, AFP, the lens culinaris-agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and the protein induced by the absence of vitamin K or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), can help identify a high risk of HCC in NAFLD patients. Innovative parameters, including a Mac-2 binding protein glycated isomer, type IV collagen 7S, free apoptosis inhibitor of the macrophage, and a combination of single nucleoside polymorphisms, are expected to be established. Considering the large size of the NAFLD population, optimal screening tests must meet several criteria, including high sensitivity, cost effectiveness, and availability. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatic fibrosis; Mac-2 binding protein glycated isomer; apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage; patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3; α-fetoprotein; protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II hepatic fibrosis; Mac-2 binding protein glycated isomer; apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage; patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3; α-fetoprotein; protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sumida, Y.; Yoneda, M.; Seko, Y.; Ishiba, H.; Hara, T.; Toyoda, H.; Yasuda, S.; Kumada, T.; Hayashi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Imajo, K.; Yoneda, M.; Tada, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Eguchi, Y.; Oeda, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tomita, E.; Okanoue, T.; Nakajima, A.; Japan Study Group of NAFLD. Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 579. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080579

AMA Style

Sumida Y, Yoneda M, Seko Y, Ishiba H, Hara T, Toyoda H, Yasuda S, Kumada T, Hayashi H, Kobayashi T, Imajo K, Yoneda M, Tada T, Kawaguchi T, Eguchi Y, Oeda S, Takahashi H, Tomita E, Okanoue T, Nakajima A, Japan Study Group of NAFLD. Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(8):579. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080579

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sumida, Yoshio; Yoneda, Masashi; Seko, Yuya; Ishiba, Hiroshi; Hara, Tasuku; Toyoda, Hidenori; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kumada, Takashi; Hayashi, Hideki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Imajo, Kento; Yoneda, Masato; Tada, Toshifumi; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Oeda, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tomita, Eiichi; Okanoue, Takeshi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Japan Study Group of NAFLD. 2020. "Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease" Diagnostics 10, no. 8: 579. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080579

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