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Article

Geographical Accessibility to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dioxygenase Deficiency Point-of-Care Testing for Antenatal Care in Ghana

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Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
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Research for Sustainable Development Consult, Sunyani, Ghana
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Department of Geography, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
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Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre, Sunyani, Ghana
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Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Upper East Region, Bolgatanga, Ghana
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Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
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Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Polokwane 0723, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(4), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040229
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 6 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 16 April 2020
Background: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency screening test is essential for malaria treatment, control, and elimination programs. G6PD deficient individuals are at high risk of severe hemolysis when given anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine, quinine, other sulphonamide-containing medicines, and chloroquine, which has recently been shown to be potent for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We evaluated the geographical accessibility to POC testing for G6PD deficiency in Ghana, a malaria-endemic country. Methods: We obtained the geographic information of 100 randomly sampled clinics previously included in a cross-sectional survey. We also obtained the geolocated data of all public hospitals providing G6PD deficiency testing services in the region. Using ArcGIS 10.5, we quantified geographical access to G6PD deficiency screening test and identified clinics as well as visualize locations with poor access for targeted improvement. The travel time was estimated using an assumed speed of 20 km per hour. Findings: Of the 100 clinics, 58% were Community-based Health Planning and Services facilities, and 42% were sub-district health centers. The majority (92%) were Ghana Health Service facilities, and the remaining 8% were Christian Health Association of Ghana facilities. Access to G6PD deficiency screening test was varied across the districts, and G6PD deficiency screening test was available in all eight public hospitals. This implies that the health facility-to-population ratio for G6PD deficiency testing service was approximately 1:159,210 (8/1,273,677) population. The spatial analysis quantified the current mean distance to a G6PD deficiency testing service from all locations in the region to be 34 ± 14 km, and travel time (68 ± 27 min). The estimated mean distance from a clinic to a district hospital for G6PD deficiency testing services was 15 ± 11 km, and travel time (46 ± 33 min). Conclusion: Access to POC testing for G6PD deficiency in Ghana was poor. Given the challenges associated with G6PD deficiency, it would be essential to improve access to G6PD deficiency POC testing to facilitate administration of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women, full implementation of the malaria control program in Ghana, and treatment of COVID-19 patients with chloroquine in malaria-endemic countries. To enable the World Health Organization include appropriate G6PD POC diagnostic tests in its list of essential in-vitro diagnostics for use in resource-limited settings, we recommend a wider evaluation of available POC diagnostic tests for G6PD deficiency, particularly in malaria-endemic countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: geographical access; glucose-6-phosphate dioxygenase deficiency; point-of-care testing; antenatal care; upper east region; Ghana geographical access; glucose-6-phosphate dioxygenase deficiency; point-of-care testing; antenatal care; upper east region; Ghana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuupiel, D.; Adu, K.M.; Bawontuo, V.; Adogboba, D.A.; Drain, P.K.; Moshabela, M.; Mashamba-Thompson, T.P. Geographical Accessibility to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dioxygenase Deficiency Point-of-Care Testing for Antenatal Care in Ghana. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 229. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040229

AMA Style

Kuupiel D, Adu KM, Bawontuo V, Adogboba DA, Drain PK, Moshabela M, Mashamba-Thompson TP. Geographical Accessibility to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dioxygenase Deficiency Point-of-Care Testing for Antenatal Care in Ghana. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(4):229. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040229

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuupiel, Desmond, Kwame M. Adu, Vitalis Bawontuo, Duncan A. Adogboba, Paul K. Drain, Mosa Moshabela, and Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson. 2020. "Geographical Accessibility to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dioxygenase Deficiency Point-of-Care Testing for Antenatal Care in Ghana" Diagnostics 10, no. 4: 229. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040229

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