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Increased Circulating Levels of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Are Associated with the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion During the First Trimester of Pregnancy

1
Centre for Biomedical Research, Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago 7620001, Chile
2
Cancer Cell Biology Lab., Centre of Celullar Biology and Biomedicine (CEBICEM), Faculty of Medicine and Science, Universidad San Sebastián, Santiago 7510157, Chile
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago 7620001, Chile
4
Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Clínica Dávila, Santiago 8420384, Chile
5
Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, QLD 4029 Herston, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040197
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
Spontaneous abortion is a common complication in early pregnancy, with an incidence of around 20%. Ultrasound scan and measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin are used to identify patients at risk of spontaneous abortion; however, there is a clinical need to find new biomarkers to prospectively identify patients before the onset of clinical symptoms. Here, we aim to investigate potential biomarkers of spontaneous abortion taken in the first clinical appointment of pregnancy. A case–control study was conducted based on a prospectively collected cohort in which cases and controls were retrospectively stratified based on pregnancy outcome: normal healthy pregnancies (controls = 33) and pregnancies that ended in spontaneous abortion (cases = 10). We evaluated extracellular vesicles isolated by precipitation with ExoQuick™ and protein concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator, leptin, and adiponectin measured by ELISA. The extracellular vesicles showed the typical morphology and membrane proteins: CD63, Alix, and Flotilin-1. The size distributions of the isolated extracellular vesicles were 112 ± 27 and 118 ± 28 nm in diameter for controls and spontaneous abortion, respectively, and the total amount of extracellular vesicles did not show any difference between controls and the spontaneous abortion group. The tissue plasminogen activator showed a significant difference (p = 0.0004) between both groups, although neither adiponectin nor leptin revealed significant changes, indicating that women who had spontaneous abortions have significantly higher levels of tissue plasminogen activator than women who had normal pregnancies. View Full-Text
Keywords: spontaneous abortion; tissue plasminogen activator; extracellular vesicles; early prediction; prenatal care spontaneous abortion; tissue plasminogen activator; extracellular vesicles; early prediction; prenatal care
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monteiro, L.J.; Varas-Godoy, M.; Acuña-Gallardo, S.; Correa, P.; Passalacqua, G.; Monckeberg, M.; Rice, G.E.; Illanes, S.E. Increased Circulating Levels of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Are Associated with the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion During the First Trimester of Pregnancy. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 197. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040197

AMA Style

Monteiro LJ, Varas-Godoy M, Acuña-Gallardo S, Correa P, Passalacqua G, Monckeberg M, Rice GE, Illanes SE. Increased Circulating Levels of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Are Associated with the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion During the First Trimester of Pregnancy. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(4):197. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040197

Chicago/Turabian Style

Monteiro, Lara J., Manuel Varas-Godoy, Stephanie Acuña-Gallardo, Paula Correa, Gianluca Passalacqua, Max Monckeberg, Gregory E. Rice, and Sebastián E. Illanes. 2020. "Increased Circulating Levels of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Are Associated with the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion During the First Trimester of Pregnancy" Diagnostics 10, no. 4: 197. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040197

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