Biomarkers for Bladder Cancer Diagnosis and Surveillance: A Comprehensive Review
i3S–Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto-IPATIMUP, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
U-Monitor Lda, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Department of Oncology, Hospital Centre of S. João, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Pathology Service, Portuguese Institute of Oncology Francisco Gentil (IPO-Coimbra), 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Urology department, Hospital de Braga, 4710-243 Braga, Portugal
Urology department, Hospital CUF Coimbra, 3000-600 Coimbra, Portugal
Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-370 Coimbra, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10010039
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urogenital Cancers: Diagnostic, Predictive, and Prognostic Markers)
Bladder cancer (BC) ranks as the sixth most prevalent cancer in the world, with a steady rise in its incidence and prevalence, and is accompanied by a high morbidity and mortality. BC is a complex disease with several molecular and pathological pathways, thus reflecting different behaviors depending on the clinical staging of the tumor and molecular type. Diagnosis and monitoring of BC is mainly performed by invasive tests, namely periodic cystoscopies; this procedure, although a reliable method, is highly uncomfortable for the patient and it is not exempt of comorbidities. Currently, there is no formal indication for the use of molecular biomarkers in clinical practice, even though there are several tests available. There is an imperative need for a clinical non-invasive testing for early detection, disease monitoring, and treatment response in BC. In this review, we aim to assess and compare different tests based on molecular biomarkers and evaluate their potential role as new molecules for bladder cancer diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment response monitoring.