Next Article in Journal
Reliability of Frail and Barthel Tests for Detecting Frailty in Palliative Oncological Patients in a Home Hospitalization Unit: A Comparative Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Changes in the Mean of Medical Visits Due to Psychiatric Disease in Korean Children and Adolescents before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Previous Article in Journal
Partial Purification and Characterization of Exo-Polygalacturonase Produced by Penicillium oxalicum AUMC 4153

Long COVID in Children and Adolescents

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University Hospital of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy
Local Health Agency of Modena, 41121 Modena, Italy
Primary Health Care Department, Local Health Agency of Modena, 41121 Modena, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ricci
Life 2022, 12(2), 285;
Received: 12 January 2022 / Revised: 29 January 2022 / Accepted: 10 February 2022 / Published: 14 February 2022
Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. In children, the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is often asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic, and life-threatening complications are rare. Nevertheless, there are two long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children that raise concern: multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and long COVID. While the understanding and the experience regarding the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection have remarkably increased over time, scientific and clinical research is still exploring the long-term effects of COVID-19. In children, data on long COVID are scant. Reports are conflicting regarding its prevalence, duration and impact on daily life. This narrative review explored the latest literature regarding long COVID-19 in the pediatric population. We showed that long COVID in children might be a relevant clinical problem. In most cases, the prognosis is good, but some children may develop long-term symptoms with a significant impact on their daily life. The paucity of studies on long COVID, including a control group of children not infected by SARS-CoV-2, prevents us from drawing firm conclusions. Whether the neuropsychiatric symptoms widely observed in children and adolescents with long COVID are the consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or are due to the tremendous stress resulting from the restrictions and the pandemics is still not clear. In both cases, psychological support can play a fundamental role in managing COVID pandemics in children. More knowledge is needed to share a standardized definition of the syndrome and improve its management and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID; long COVID; neuropsychiatric symptoms; quality of life; SARS-CoV-2 COVID; long COVID; neuropsychiatric symptoms; quality of life; SARS-CoV-2
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fainardi, V.; Meoli, A.; Chiopris, G.; Motta, M.; Skenderaj, K.; Grandinetti, R.; Bergomi, A.; Antodaro, F.; Zona, S.; Esposito, S. Long COVID in Children and Adolescents. Life 2022, 12, 285.

AMA Style

Fainardi V, Meoli A, Chiopris G, Motta M, Skenderaj K, Grandinetti R, Bergomi A, Antodaro F, Zona S, Esposito S. Long COVID in Children and Adolescents. Life. 2022; 12(2):285.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fainardi, Valentina, Aniello Meoli, Giulia Chiopris, Matteo Motta, Kaltra Skenderaj, Roberto Grandinetti, Andrea Bergomi, Francesco Antodaro, Stefano Zona, and Susanna Esposito. 2022. "Long COVID in Children and Adolescents" Life 12, no. 2: 285.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop